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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1588; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121588

Attitudinal, Behavioral, and Environmental Correlates of Child and Parent Self-Efficacy in Walking to School

1
Department of Forest Resources and Landscape Architecture, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea
2
Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137, USA
3
Department of Childhood Studies, Rutgers University, 405-7 Cooper Street, Camden, NJ 08102, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
5
Seattle Children’s Research Institute, 1900 9th Ave, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract

As a critical social cognitive construct, self-efficacy plays a determinant role in children’s walking to school (WTS). However, little is known about factors that are underlying children’s and parents’ self-efficacy in WTS. The purpose of this study is to examine behavioral, attitudinal, and environmental correlates of child self-efficacy and parent self-efficacy in WTS, and to assess differences in the correlates of child versus parent self-efficacy. Data were collected from students (N = 1224) and parents (N = 1205) from 81 elementary schools across Texas in 2009–2012. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to identify significant factors that are associated with children’s self-efficacy and parents’ self-efficacy. Results from this study showed that the parent self-efficacy was more likely to be related to their own behaviors or attitudes, rather than the environmental factors or their child’s input. The child self-efficacy, however, was influenced not only by their own and parental behaviors or attitudes, but also by environmental factors. This study suggests that both parental and child self-efficacy are important factors to be considered when making decisions about school transportation. View Full-Text
Keywords: walking to school; child and parent self-efficacy; attitude; behavior; environment walking to school; child and parent self-efficacy; attitude; behavior; environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, C.; Lu, W.; Mendoza, J.A. Attitudinal, Behavioral, and Environmental Correlates of Child and Parent Self-Efficacy in Walking to School. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1588.

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