Next Article in Journal
Protective Effects of Ambient Ozone on Incidence and Outcomes of Ischemic Stroke in Changzhou, China: A Time-Series Study
Previous Article in Journal
Ovsiankina’s Great Relief: How Supplemental Work during the Weekend May Contribute to Recovery in the Face of Unfinished Tasks
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1604; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121604

Maternal Exposure to Air Pollutants and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Yong-Kang District, Tainan City, Taiwan
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan
Department of Dentistry, An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan City, Taiwan
Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [927 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]   |  


Mounting evidence has shown an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in association with elevated exposure to air pollution. However, limited evidence is available concerning the effect of specific air pollutant(s) on GDM incidence. We conducted this case-control study on 6717 mothers with GDM diagnosed in 2006–2013 and 6717 age- and year of delivery-matched controls to further address the risk of GDM in relation to specific air pollutant. Both cases and controls were selected from a cohort of 1-million beneficiaries of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance program registered in 2005. Maternal exposures to mean daily air pollutant concentration, derived from 76 fixed air quality monitoring stations within the 12-week period prior to pregnancy and during the 1st and 2nd trimesters, were assessed by the spatial analyst method (i.e., ordinary kriging) with the ArcGIS software. After controlling for potential confounders and other air pollutants, an increase in pre-pregnancy exposure of 1 inter-quartile range (IQR) for PM2.5 and SO2 was found to associate with a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR) of GDM at 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.18 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45), respectively. Exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 during the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also associated with significantly increased ORs, which were 1.09 (95% CI 1.02–1.17) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01–1.14) for PM2.5, and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.31–1.46) for SO2. It was concluded that higher pre- and post-pregnancy exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 for mothers were associated with a significantly but modestly elevated risk of GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; gestational diabetes mellitus; nested case-control study; dose-response relationship air pollution; gestational diabetes mellitus; nested case-control study; dose-response relationship

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, H.-N.; Hua, S.-Y.; Chiu, C.-T.; Li, C.-Y. Maternal Exposure to Air Pollutants and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1604.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top