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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2014), Pages 3473-4554

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Open AccessArticle Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4544-4554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404544
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat
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To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Cross-Site Intervention in Chinese Rural Migrants Enhances HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4528-4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404528
Received: 22 November 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China). Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services,
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Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China). Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services, etc.). Objective: We explored the efficacy of a HIV/AIDS prevention and control program for rural migrants in Shaanxi Province, administered at both rural and urban sites. Methods: Guidance concerning HIV/AIDS prevention was given to the experimental group (266 migrants) for 1 year by the center of disease control, community health agencies and family planning department. The intervention was conducted according to the HIV/AIDS Prevention Management Manual for Rural Migrants. A control group of migrants only received general population intervention. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by administering HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior (KAB) questionnaires after 6 and 12 months. Results: In the experimental group; 6 months of intervention achieved improvements in HIV/AIDS related knowledge. After 12 months; HIV/AIDS-related knowledge reached near maximal scores. Attitude and most behaviors scores were significantly improved. Moreover; the experimental group showed significant differences in HIV-AIDS knowledge; attitude and most behavior compared with the control group. Conclusions: The systematic long-term cross-site HIV/AIDS prevention in both rural and urban areas is a highly effective method to improve HIV/AIDS KAB among rural migrants. Full article
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Open AccessReview Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4449-4527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404449
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of
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This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview Adaptive Response in Animals Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields: Some Underlying Mechanisms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4441-4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404441
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative
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During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4427-4440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404427
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus,
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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Overweight and Elevation with Chronic Knee and Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4417-4426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404417
Received: 5 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is known that overweight is associated with chronic knee pain (CKP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Several risk factors for these conditions have been postulated, including age, sex, overweight, occupation, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, physical environment has been studied as
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It is known that overweight is associated with chronic knee pain (CKP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Several risk factors for these conditions have been postulated, including age, sex, overweight, occupation, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, physical environment has been studied as a potential risk factor in recent years. However, the associations of overweight and physical environment with CKP and CLBP remains unclear. The aim of this study conducted in a rural mountainous region was to examine whether overweight individuals living at higher elevations have an increased probability of experiencing CKP and CLBP. In 2009, we conducted a mail survey with a random sample aged between 40 to 79 years. Questionnaires were sent to 6,000 individuals and a total of 4,559 individuals responded to this survey. After excluding the respondents with missing data, we conducted a logistic regression analysis of the data for 3,109 individuals. There was statistically significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of CKP for those who were overweight living at low elevation (aOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.21–2.98), moderate elevation (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.05–2.87), and high elevation (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.31–3.46) than those who were not overweight living at low elevation. However, similar patterns were not observed for CLBP. Our results show that specific overweight–elevation associations were observed for CKP in a rural mountainous region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Epidemiological Risk Analysis of Home Injuries in Italy (1999–2006)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4402-4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404402
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Home injuries are an important public health issue in both developed and developing countries. This study focused on the Italian epidemiological framework between 1999 and 2006, using a nation-representative sample provided by the National Institute of Statistics. Every year, about 3,000,000 Italian residents
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Home injuries are an important public health issue in both developed and developing countries. This study focused on the Italian epidemiological framework between 1999 and 2006, using a nation-representative sample provided by the National Institute of Statistics. Every year, about 3,000,000 Italian residents reported at least one home injury, with an overall annual rate of 5.2/100 (95% CI 5.1–5.4); 3.2/100 (3.0–3.4) for males and 7.2/100 (6.9–7.4) for females. Poisson regression models were used for different age-specific populations (children, young/adults and older people), to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic, health/income satisfaction and housing variables. For children, non-applicable variables (including smoking and health satisfaction) were taken as those of the head of family, while housework time was taken the family mean time. Evidence of decreasing time trend in risk of home injury was found only among young/adults (p < 0.01). The following were risk factors: female gender (adjusted relative risk—RR 2.0 for older people and RR 1.9 for young/adults, p < 0.01); one additional hour of work at home (RR 1.009, p < 0.01 for young/adults and RR 1.016, p = 0.01 for children); smoking (RR 1.3, p < 0.01 for young/adults and p = 0.02 for children); health dissatisfaction (RR 1.3, p = 0.05 for children, RR 1.6 for young/adults and RR 1.7 for older people, p < 0.01); income dissatisfaction (RR 1.2, p < 0.01 for young/adults ); living alone (RR 1.5, p < 0.01 for young/adults and RR 1.2, p < 0.02 for the older people); having a garden (RR 1.1, p < 0.01 for young/adults ). Awareness of the need for safety at home could be boosted by information campaigns on the risk, and its social cost could be reduced by specific prevention schemes. Developing tools for assessing the risk at home and for removing the main hazards would be useful for both informative and prevention interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4384-4401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404384
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress
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Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003−2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL), a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HINDT). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HINDT > 1) and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3]) and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6]) women were more likely to have an HINDT > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]). Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle Mortality from Cancers of the Digestive System among Grand Multiparous Women in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4374-4383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404374
Received: 10 January 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of grand multiparous (GM) status in the mortality from cancers of the digestive system among a cohort of GM women in Taiwan during the period 1978–2008. The study cohort consisted of 144,922 women
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of grand multiparous (GM) status in the mortality from cancers of the digestive system among a cohort of GM women in Taiwan during the period 1978–2008. The study cohort consisted of 144,922 women with at least five children (GM women) in the Taiwan Birth Register between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancers of the digestive system including esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and pancreas were calculated by dividing the numbers of observed cancer deaths to the expected numbers of deaths based on the rates of national female population. Among the 144,922 GM women, a total of 23, 220, 213, 92, 397, and 65 deaths were caused by cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, and pancreas, respectively. The SMRs among GM women were 1.61 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.95–2.27) for esophageal cancer, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00–1.31) for stomach cancer, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93–1.22) for colon cancer, 0.94 (95% CI: 0.75–1.14) for rectal cancer, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06–1.30) for liver cancer, and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.60–0.98) for pancreatic cancer. This study provides evidence that grand multiparity may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from pancreatic cancer. However, the results suggest that GM women may increase the risk of death from cancers of the liver and stomach. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4356-4373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404356
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 144 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely
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Background: Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 19,414 participants were included in the analysis, with 88 of them (0.5%) reported not being smokers at the time of EC use initiation. Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers) while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. They were using ECs for a median of 10 months. They initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% used higher than 20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% of participants were using 0-nicotine liquids at the time of the survey. Former smokers were highly dependent (Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence = 7) and were heavier smokers (21 cigarettes per day when smoking) compared to current smokers. The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harm associated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless. Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%), with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely). Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements in pre-existing disease conditions (including respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease). Being former smoker was independently associated with positive effects in health and improvements in disease conditions. Conclusions: The results of this worldwide survey of dedicated users indicate that ECs are mostly used to avoid the harm associated with smoking. They can be effective even in highly-dependent smokers and are used as long-term substitutes for smoking. High levels of nicotine are used at initiation; subsequently, users try to reduce nicotine consumption, with only a small minority using non-nicotine liquids. Side effects are minor and health benefits are substantial, especially for those who completely substitute smoking with EC use. Further population and interventional studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes as a Tool in Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Open AccessArticle Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4340-4355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404340
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As reclaimed water use expands, it is important to evaluate potential occupational health risks from exposure to this alternative water source. We compared odds of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) between
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As reclaimed water use expands, it is important to evaluate potential occupational health risks from exposure to this alternative water source. We compared odds of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) between spray irrigation workers using reclaimed water and office worker controls. Nasal and dermal swabs from 19 spray irrigation workers and 24 office worker controls were collected and analyzed for MRSA, MSSA, VRE, and VSE. Isolates were confirmed using standard biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion, chi-square, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression. No MRSA or VRE were detected in any samples. MSSA was detected in 26% and 29% of spray irrigators and controls, respectively. VSE was detected in 11% and 0% of spray irrigation workers and controls, respectively. The adjusted odds of MSSA, multidrug-resistant MSSA, and either MSSA or VSE colonization were greater among spray irrigation workers, however results were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further evaluate this relationship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Behavior of VOCs and Carbonyl Compounds Emission from Different Types of Wallpapers in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4326-4339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404326
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from three types of commercially available wallpapers (i.e., PVC-coated, paper-backed, natural material-coated) in Korea were evaluated using a 20 L small chamber. A total of 332 products were tested for emission factors, frequencies
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Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from three types of commercially available wallpapers (i.e., PVC-coated, paper-backed, natural material-coated) in Korea were evaluated using a 20 L small chamber. A total of 332 products were tested for emission factors, frequencies of occurrence and composition ratios. Toluene and formaldehyde concentrations were below Korean standard values for all products; however, the total VOC (TVOC) concentrations exceeded current standards (4.0 mg/m2·h) for 30 products. The TVOC emission factor for PVC-coated wallpapers, for which polymer materials are used in the manufacturing process, was seven and 16 times higher than those of paper-backed and natural material-coated wallpapers, respectively. The detection frequencies for toluene and formaldehyde were the highest (82.5%) and fourth highest (79.5%), respectively among the 50 target chemical species. The composition ratios for BTEX ranged from 0.3% to 5.1% and unidentified VOCs, which were not qualitatively analyzed using standard gas methods, ranged from 90.2% to 94.8%. Among six carbonyl compounds (acrolein was not detected in any type of wallpaper), acetone had the highest concentrations in PVC-coated (44.6%) and paper-backed (66.6%) wallpapers. Formaldehyde emissions were highest (64.6%) for natural material-coated wallpapers, a result of the formaldehyde-based resin used in the manufacturing process for these products. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Though not Reservoirs, Dogs might Transmit Leptospira in New Caledonia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4316-4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404316
Received: 22 January 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and
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Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and genotyping. Serological analyses were also performed for dogs. Our results suggest that deer are a reservoir of L. borgpetersenii Hardjobovis and pigs a reservoir of L. interrogans Pomona. Interestingly, 4.4% of dogs were renal carriers of Leptospira. In dog populations, MAT results confirmed the circulation of the same Leptospira serogroups involved in human cases. Even if not reservoirs, dogs might be of significance in human contamination by making an epidemiological link between wild or feral reservoirs and humans. Dogs could bring pathogens back home, shedding Leptospira via their urine and in turn increasing the risk of human contamination. We propose to consider dog as a vector, particularly in rural areas where seroprevalence is significantly higher than urban areas. Our results highlight the importance of animal health in improving leptospirosis prevention in a One Health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospirosis in the Animal—Human-Ecosystem Interface)
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Open AccessArticle Motor Vehicle Accident Eye Injuries in Northern Israel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4311-4315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404311
Received: 2 March 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents
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Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents were classified according to type, severity of injury and demographic data of patients. Results: Nearly five percents of ER presentations were due to motor vehicle accidents. Most motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries were mild. Conclusion: Efforts should be taken to prevention and to minimize the severity of motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries. Full article
Open AccessReview Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4292-4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110404292
Received: 21 November 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address
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Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research. Full article
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