Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4340-4355; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404340
Article

Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water

Received: 12 February 2014; in revised form: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: As reclaimed water use expands, it is important to evaluate potential occupational health risks from exposure to this alternative water source. We compared odds of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) between spray irrigation workers using reclaimed water and office worker controls. Nasal and dermal swabs from 19 spray irrigation workers and 24 office worker controls were collected and analyzed for MRSA, MSSA, VRE, and VSE. Isolates were confirmed using standard biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion, chi-square, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression. No MRSA or VRE were detected in any samples. MSSA was detected in 26% and 29% of spray irrigators and controls, respectively. VSE was detected in 11% and 0% of spray irrigation workers and controls, respectively. The adjusted odds of MSSA, multidrug-resistant MSSA, and either MSSA or VSE colonization were greater among spray irrigation workers, however results were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further evaluate this relationship.
Keywords: antibiotic-resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; enterococci; spray irrigation; occupational exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goldstein, R.E.R.; Micallef, S.A.; Gibbs, S.G.; He, X.; George, A.; Sapkota, A.; Joseph, S.W.; Sapkota, A.R. Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4340-4355.

AMA Style

Goldstein RER, Micallef SA, Gibbs SG, He X, George A, Sapkota A, Joseph SW, Sapkota AR. Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(4):4340-4355.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goldstein, Rachel E.R.; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R. 2014. "Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 4: 4340-4355.

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