Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4384-4401; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404384
Article

Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES

1,* email, 2email, 3email and 2
Received: 17 March 2014; in revised form: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003−2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL), a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HINDT). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HINDT > 1) and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3]) and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6]) women were more likely to have an HINDT > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]). Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint.
Keywords: allostatic load (AL); chronic stress; cumulative exposure assessment; cumulative risk assessment (CRA); hazard index (HI); nonchemical stressors; neurodevelopment; physiological dysregulation; susceptibility; vulnerability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Evans, A.M.; Rice, G.E.; Teuschler, L.K.; Wright, J.M. Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4384-4401.

AMA Style

Evans AM, Rice GE, Teuschler LK, Wright JM. Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(4):4384-4401.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Evans, Amanda M.; Rice, Glenn E.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Wright, J. M. 2014. "Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 4: 4384-4401.


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