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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4292-4310; doi:10.3390/ijerph110404292
Review

Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

1,2,3,4,* , 2,3,4
, 2,3,4,5
, 2,3,4
, 2,3,4
 and 1,4
1 School of Environmental Engineering (EME), Campus de Ker Lann, Avenue Robert Schuman, Bruz 35170, France 2 EHESP Rennes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard-CS 74312, Rennes Cedex 35043, France 3 INSERM, UMR IRSET Institut de Recherche sur la Santé l'Environnement et le Travail - 1085, LERES, Rennes 35043, France 4 European University of Brittany (UEB), 5 Boulevard Laënnec, Rennes 35000, France 5 Deparment of Sciences, Nîmes University, Rue du docteur George Salan, Nîmes 30000, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
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Abstract

Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.
Keywords: optical methods; heavy rainfall; colloids; turbidity; pathogens optical methods; heavy rainfall; colloids; turbidity; pathogens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Jung, A.-V.; Le Cann, P.; Roig, B.; Thomas, O.; Baurès, E.; Thomas, M.-F. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4292-4310.

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