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Mar. Drugs, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2011), Pages 478-689

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Quantification of Dissolved and Particulate Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Adriatic Sea
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 500-513; doi:10.3390/md9040500
Received: 4 February 2011 / Revised: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 24 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) are supposed to play critical roles in chemically-mediated plankton interactions. Laboratory studies suggest that they act as mediators of chemical defense and chemical communication. PUA are oxylipins containing an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element and are mainly found in diatoms. [...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) are supposed to play critical roles in chemically-mediated plankton interactions. Laboratory studies suggest that they act as mediators of chemical defense and chemical communication. PUA are oxylipins containing an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element and are mainly found in diatoms. We present here a detailed surface mapping of PUA during a spring bloom of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi in the Adriatic Sea. We monitored dissolved PUA, as well as particulate PUA, which are produced by phytoplankton after cell disintegration. Our survey revealed a patchy distribution of PUA and shows that at most stations S. marinoi is the major contributor to the overall PUA. Our data also suggest that lysis of a diatom bloom can contribute significantly to the dissolved PUA concentrations and that other producers, which are smaller in cell size compared to diatoms, have to be taken into account as well if the total PUA content of marine samples is considered. The analyses of samples collected in deeper water suggests that diatom contribution to PUA decreases with depth, while smaller-sized unidentified organisms take place as dominant contributors to the PUA concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Statistical Research on Marine Natural Products Based on Data Obtained between 1985 and 2008
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 514-525; doi:10.3390/md9040514
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 4 March 2011 / Accepted: 24 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the 1960s, more than 20,000 compounds were discovered from marine organisms. In this paper we performed a quantitative analysis for the novel marine natural products reported between 1985 and 2008. The data was extracted mainly from the reviews of Faulkner and [...] Read more.
Since the 1960s, more than 20,000 compounds were discovered from marine organisms. In this paper we performed a quantitative analysis for the novel marine natural products reported between 1985 and 2008. The data was extracted mainly from the reviews of Faulkner and Blunt [1–26]. The organisms producing these marine natural products are divided into three major biological classes: marine microorganisms (including phytoplankton), marine algae and marine invertebrate. The marine natural products are divided into seven classes based on their chemical structure: terpenoids, steroids (including steroidal saponins), alkaloids, ethers (including ketals), phenols (including quinones), strigolactones, and peptides. The distribution and the temporal trend of these classes (biological classes and chemical structure classes) were investigated. We hope this article provides a comprehensive perspective on the research of marine natural products. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 526-534; doi:10.3390/md9040526
Received: 13 February 2011 / Revised: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median [...] Read more.
To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B), decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (%) had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Effects of High Salt Stress on Secondary Metabolite Production in the Marine-Derived Fungus Spicaria elegans
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 535-542; doi:10.3390/md9040535
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 30 March 2011 / Published: 31 March 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To obtain structurally novel and bioactive natural compounds from marine-derived microorganisms, the effect of high salt stress on secondary metabolite production in the marine-derived fungal strain, Spicaria elegans KLA-03, was investigated. The organism, which was isolated from marine sediment, produced different secondary [...] Read more.
To obtain structurally novel and bioactive natural compounds from marine-derived microorganisms, the effect of high salt stress on secondary metabolite production in the marine-derived fungal strain, Spicaria elegans KLA-03, was investigated. The organism, which was isolated from marine sediment, produced different secondary metabolites when cultured in 3% and 10% saline conditions. Four characteristic metabolites, only produced in the 10% salinity culture, were isolated, and their structures were identified as (2E,2'Z)-3,3'-(6,6'-dihydroxybiphenyl-3,3'-diyl)diacrylic acid (1), aspulvinone E (2), aspochalasin E (3) and trichodermamide B (6), according to their 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 1 is a new compound. High salt stress may therefore be a promising means to induce the production of new and chlorinated compounds in halotolerant fungi. Compound 1 showed moderate antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.038 and 0.767 mM, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 543-560; doi:10.3390/md9040543
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 23 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 31 March 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine pelagic diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales) are widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are particularly common in the waters of New Caledonia. Blooms of Trichodesmium are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food [...] Read more.
Marine pelagic diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales) are widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are particularly common in the waters of New Caledonia. Blooms of Trichodesmium are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain several types of paralyzing toxins. The toxicity of water-soluble extracts of Trichodesmium spp. were analyzed by mouse bioassay and Neuroblastoma assay and their toxic compounds characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Here, we report the first identification of palytoxin and one of its derivatives, 42-hydroxy-palytoxin, in field samples of Trichodesmium collected in the New Caledonian lagoon. The possible role played by Trichodesmium blooms in the development of clupeotoxism, this human intoxication following the ingestion of plankton-eating fish and classically associated with Ostreopsis blooms, is also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phylogenetic Identification of Fungi Isolated from the Marine Sponge Tethya aurantium and Identification of Their Secondary Metabolites
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 561-585; doi:10.3390/md9040561
Received: 17 February 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fungi associated with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium were isolated and identified by morphological criteria and phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. They were evaluated with regard to their secondary metabolite profiles. Among the 81 isolates which were characterized, [...] Read more.
Fungi associated with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium were isolated and identified by morphological criteria and phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. They were evaluated with regard to their secondary metabolite profiles. Among the 81 isolates which were characterized, members of 21 genera were identified. Some genera like Acremonium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, and Trichoderma are quite common, but we also isolated strains belonging to genera like Botryosphaeria, Epicoccum, Parasphaeosphaeria, and Tritirachium which have rarely been reported from sponges. Members affiliated to the genera Bartalinia and Volutella as well as to a presumably new Phoma species were first isolated from a sponge in this study. On the basis of their classification, strains were selected for analysis of their ability to produce natural products. In addition to a number of known compounds, several new natural products were identified. The scopularides and sorbifuranones have been described elsewhere. We have isolated four additional substances which have not been described so far. The new metabolite cillifuranone (1) was isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum strain LF066. The structure of cillifuranone (1) was elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR analysis and turned out to be a previously postulated intermediate in sorbifuranone biosynthesis. Only minor antibiotic bioactivities of this compound were found so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Fungi)
Open AccessArticle Coccolithophores: Functional Biodiversity, Enzymes and Bioprospecting
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 586-602; doi:10.3390/md9040586
Received: 15 March 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emiliania huxleyi is a single celled, marine phytoplankton with global distribution. As a key species for global biogeochemical cycling, a variety of strains have been amassed in various culture collections. Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an [...] Read more.
Emiliania huxleyi is a single celled, marine phytoplankton with global distribution. As a key species for global biogeochemical cycling, a variety of strains have been amassed in various culture collections. Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an ‘in house‘ enzyme screening program, we have assessed the functional biodiversity within this species of fundamental importance to global biogeochemical cycling, whilst at the same time determining their potential for exploitation in biocatalytic applications. Here, we describe the screening of E. huxleyi strains, as well as a coccolithovirus infected strain, for commercially relevant biocatalytic enzymes such as acid/alkali phosphodiesterase, acid/alkali phosphomonoesterase, EC1.1.1-type dehydrogenase, EC1.3.1-type dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Heterofucan from Sargassum filipendula Induces Apoptosis in HeLa Cells
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 603-614; doi:10.3390/md9040603
Received: 22 February 2011 / Revised: 29 March 2011 / Accepted: 8 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. Heterofucan SF-1.5v was extracted from the brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. This fucan showed antiproliferative activity on Hela cells [...] Read more.
Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. Heterofucan SF-1.5v was extracted from the brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. This fucan showed antiproliferative activity on Hela cells and induced apoptosis. However, SF-1.5v was not able to activate caspases. Moreover, SF-1.5v induced glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) activation, but this protein is not involved in the heterofucan SF-1.5v induced apoptosis mechanism. In addition, ERK, p38, p53, pAKT and NFκB were not affected by the presence of SF-1.5v. We determined that SF-1.5v induces apoptosis in HeLa mainly by mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) into cytosol. In addition, SF-1.5v decreases the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased expression of apoptogenic protein Bax. These results are significant in that they provide a mechanistic framework for further exploring the use of SF-1.5v as a novel chemotherapeutics against human cervical cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biodegradable and Biocompatible Biomaterial, Polyhydroxybutyrate, Produced by an Indigenous Vibrio sp. BM-1 Isolated from Marine Environment
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 615-624; doi:10.3390/md9040615
Received: 8 March 2011 / Revised: 31 March 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. [...] Read more.
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1, isolated from a marine environment by improving constituents of medium and implementing an appropriate fermentation strategy. This study successfully developed a glycerol-yeast extract-tryptone (GYT) medium that can facilitate the growth of Vibrio sp. BM-1 and lead to the production of 1.4 g/L PHB at 20 h cultivation. This study also shows that 1.57 g/L PHB concentration and 16% PHB content were achieved, respectively, when Vibrio sp. BM-1 was cultivated with MS-GYT medium (mineral salts-supplemented GYT medium) for 12 h. Both cell dry weight (CDW) and residual CDW remained constant at around 8.2 g/L and 8.0 g/L after the 12 h of cultivation, until the end of the experiment. However, both 16% of PHB content and 1.57 g/L of PHB production decreased rapidly to 3% and 0.25 g/L, respectively from 12 h of cultivation to 40 h of cultivation. The results suggest that the secretion of PHB depolymerase that might be caused by the addition of mineral salts reduced PHB after 12 h of cultivation. However, work will be done to explain the effect of adding mineral salts on the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1 in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Polymer Networks Produced by Marine Diatoms in the Northern Adriatic Sea
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 666-679; doi:10.3390/md9040666
Received: 25 January 2011 / Revised: 5 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using high resolution molecular technique of atomic force microscopy, we address the extracellular polymer production of Adriatic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium analyzed at the single cell level and the supramolecular organization of gel phase isolated from the Northern Adriatic macroaggregates. Our results revealed [...] Read more.
Using high resolution molecular technique of atomic force microscopy, we address the extracellular polymer production of Adriatic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium analyzed at the single cell level and the supramolecular organization of gel phase isolated from the Northern Adriatic macroaggregates. Our results revealed that extracellular polysaccharides freshly produced by marine diatoms can self-assemble directly to form gel network characteristics of the macroscopic gel phase in the natural aquatorium. Based on the experiments performed with isolated polysaccharide fractions of C. closterium and of macroaggregates gel phase, we demonstrated that the polysaccharide self-assembly into gel network can proceed independent of any bacterial mediation or interaction with inorganic particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Bactericidal Kinetics of Marine-Derived Napyradiomycins against Contemporary Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 680-689; doi:10.3390/md9040680
Received: 16 December 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an urgent need for new antibiotics to treat hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Previous work has indicated that both terrestrial and marine-derived members of the napyradiomycin class possess potential anti-staphylococcal activities. These compounds are unique meroterpenoids with [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need for new antibiotics to treat hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Previous work has indicated that both terrestrial and marine-derived members of the napyradiomycin class possess potential anti-staphylococcal activities. These compounds are unique meroterpenoids with unusual levels of halogenation. In this paper we report the evaluation of two previously described napyradiomycin derivatives, A80915A (1) and A80915B (2) produced by the marine-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. strain CNQ-525, for their specific activities against contemporary and clinically relevant MRSA. Reported are studies of the in vitro kinetics of these chemical scaffolds in time-kill MRSA assays. Both napyradiomycin derivatives demonstrate potent and rapid bactericidal activity against contemporary MRSA strains. These data may help guide future development and design of analogs of the napyradiomycins that could potentially serve as useful anti-MRSA therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antibiotics)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 478-499; doi:10.3390/md9040478
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 25 March 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, [...] Read more.
In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessReview Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 625-644; doi:10.3390/md9040625
Received: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 84 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment) of [...] Read more.
Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment) of human diseases and health conditions, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular problems, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, cataracts and some neurological disorders. The underlying features that may account for such favorable biological activities are their intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral features. In this invited review, the most important issues regarding synthesis of carotenoids by microalgae are described and discussed—from both physiological and processing points of view. Current gaps of knowledge, as well as technological opportunities in the near future relating to this growing field of interest, are also put forward in a critical manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
Open AccessReview Carbohydrase Systems of Saccharophagus degradans Degrading Marine Complex Polysaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 645-665; doi:10.3390/md9040645
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 is a γ-subgroup proteobacterium capable of using many of the complex polysaccharides found in the marine environment for growth. To utilize these complex polysaccharides, this bacterium produces a plethora of carbohydrases dedicated to the processing of a carbohydrate class. [...] Read more.
Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 is a γ-subgroup proteobacterium capable of using many of the complex polysaccharides found in the marine environment for growth. To utilize these complex polysaccharides, this bacterium produces a plethora of carbohydrases dedicated to the processing of a carbohydrate class. Aiding in the identification of the contributing genes and enzymes is the known genome sequence for this bacterium. This review catalogs the genes and enzymes of the S. degradans genome that are likely to function in the systems for the utilization of agar, alginate, α- and β-glucans, chitin, mannans, pectins, and xylans and discusses the cell biology and genetics of each system as it functions to transfer carbon back to the bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)

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