Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 543-560; doi:10.3390/md9040543
Article

First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

1 Toulouse University, UPS, UMR152 UPS-IRD (PHARMA-DEV), 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France 2 Research Institute for the Development (IRD), UMR152, 98848 Noumea, New Caledonia 3 Laboratory of Phycotoxins, IFREMER, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP21105, F-44311 Nantes cedex 3, France 4 Laboratory of toxic micro-algae (LMT), Louis Malarde Institute (ILM), BP30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia 5 Biological Science Center, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA 6 Research Institute for the Development (IRD), UMR152, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2011; in revised form: 23 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 31 March 2011
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Abstract: Marine pelagic diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales) are widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are particularly common in the waters of New Caledonia. Blooms of Trichodesmium are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain several types of paralyzing toxins. The toxicity of water-soluble extracts of Trichodesmium spp. were analyzed by mouse bioassay and Neuroblastoma assay and their toxic compounds characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Here, we report the first identification of palytoxin and one of its derivatives, 42-hydroxy-palytoxin, in field samples of Trichodesmium collected in the New Caledonian lagoon. The possible role played by Trichodesmium blooms in the development of clupeotoxism, this human intoxication following the ingestion of plankton-eating fish and classically associated with Ostreopsis blooms, is also discussed.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Trichodesmium; palytoxin; 42-hydroxy-palytoxin; clupeotoxism

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kerbrat, A.S.; Amzil, Z.; Pawlowiez, R.; Golubic, S.; Sibat, M.; Darius, H.T.; Chinain, M.; Laurent, D. First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 543-560.

AMA Style

Kerbrat AS, Amzil Z, Pawlowiez R, Golubic S, Sibat M, Darius HT, Chinain M, Laurent D. First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(4):543-560.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kerbrat, Anne Sophie; Amzil, Zouher; Pawlowiez, Ralph; Golubic, Stjepko; Sibat, Manoella; Darius, Helene Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique. 2011. "First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 4: 543-560.

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