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First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium
Toulouse University, UPS, UMR152 UPS-IRD (PHARMA-DEV), 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France
Research Institute for the Development (IRD), UMR152, 98848 Noumea, New Caledonia
Laboratory of Phycotoxins, IFREMER, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP21105, F-44311 Nantes cedex 3, France
Laboratory of toxic micro-algae (LMT), Louis Malarde Institute (ILM), BP30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
Biological Science Center, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Research Institute for the Development (IRD), UMR152, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2011; in revised form: 23 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 31 March 2011
Abstract: Marine pelagic diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales) are widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are particularly common in the waters of New Caledonia. Blooms of Trichodesmium are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain several types of paralyzing toxins. The toxicity of water-soluble extracts of Trichodesmium spp. were analyzed by mouse bioassay and Neuroblastoma assay and their toxic compounds characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Here, we report the first identification of palytoxin and one of its derivatives, 42-hydroxy-palytoxin, in field samples of Trichodesmium collected in the New Caledonian lagoon. The possible role played by Trichodesmium blooms in the development of clupeotoxism, this human intoxication following the ingestion of plankton-eating fish and classically associated with Ostreopsis blooms, is also discussed.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Trichodesmium; palytoxin; 42-hydroxy-palytoxin; clupeotoxism
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Kerbrat, A.S.; Amzil, Z.; Pawlowiez, R.; Golubic, S.; Sibat, M.; Darius, H.T.; Chinain, M.; Laurent, D. First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 543-560.
Kerbrat AS, Amzil Z, Pawlowiez R, Golubic S, Sibat M, Darius HT, Chinain M, Laurent D. First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(4):543-560.
Kerbrat, Anne Sophie; Amzil, Zouher; Pawlowiez, Ralph; Golubic, Stjepko; Sibat, Manoella; Darius, Helene Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique. 2011. "First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 4: 543-560.