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Mar. Drugs, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2009), Pages 268-482

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Use of Positron Emission Tomography in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients under Therapy with Trabectedin
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 331-340; doi:10.3390/md7030331
Received: 23 June 2009 / Revised: 14 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 17 July 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: We used 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate the FDG uptake in patients with advanced and/or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) undergoing therapy with Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743, Trabectedin, YondelisTM). Patients and Methods: The [...] Read more.
Background: We used 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate the FDG uptake in patients with advanced and/or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) undergoing therapy with Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743, Trabectedin, YondelisTM). Patients and Methods: The pilot study included nine patients with metastatic STS receiving a minimum of one cycle of treatment with trabectedin. Patients were examined using PET prior to onset of therapy and after completion of one or three cycles of trabectedin. Restaging according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) was performed in parallel using computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and served for reference. Results: Clinical outcome of nine evaluable patients was as follows: one patient with partial remission (PR), three patients with stable disease (SD), and five patients with progressive disease (PD). A more than 40% decrease of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of sequential PET examination could be demonstrated for the responding patient (PR), whereas patients with SD or PD showed a stable SUV, but no increase in SUV. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first small series of patients being treated with trabectedin and monitored using sequential PET imaging demonstrating SUV stabilization in nearly all monitored patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 341-354; doi:10.3390/md7030341
Received: 27 May 2009 / Revised: 17 July 2009 / Accepted: 20 July 2009 / Published: 21 July 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper [...] Read more.
A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized. Full article
Open AccessArticle Brominated Selinane Sesquiterpenes from the Marine Brown Alga Dictyopteris divaricata
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 355-360; doi:10.3390/md7030355
Received: 29 June 2009 / Revised: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 21 July 2009 / Published: 22 July 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (95 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new brominated selinane sesquiterpenes, 1-bromoselin-4(14),11-diene (1) and 9-bromoselin-4(14),11-diene (2), one known cadinane sesquiterpene, cadalene (3), and four known selinane sesquiterpenes, α-selinene (4), β-selinene (5), β-dictyopterol (6), and cyperusol C (7), were isolated from a sample of marine brown [...] Read more.
Two new brominated selinane sesquiterpenes, 1-bromoselin-4(14),11-diene (1) and 9-bromoselin-4(14),11-diene (2), one known cadinane sesquiterpene, cadalene (3), and four known selinane sesquiterpenes, α-selinene (4), β-selinene (5), β-dictyopterol (6), and cyperusol C (7), were isolated from a sample of marine brown alga Dictyopteris divaricata collected off the coast of Yantai (China). Their structures were established by detailed MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, as well as comparison with literature data. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Mediterranean Red Alga Asparagopsis: A Source of Compounds against Leishmania
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 361-366; doi:10.3390/md7030361
Received: 23 July 2009 / Revised: 7 August 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 11 August 2009
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crude extracts and column fractions from the red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis and A. armata from the Strait of Messina (Italy) were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Extracts from both species revealed remarkable antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania, revealing such algae [...] Read more.
Crude extracts and column fractions from the red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis and A. armata from the Strait of Messina (Italy) were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Extracts from both species revealed remarkable antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania, revealing such algae as a great source of natural antiprotozoal products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Two New Jaspamide Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Jaspis splendens
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 435-444; doi:10.3390/md7030435
Received: 21 August 2009 / Revised: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 14 September 2009 / Published: 15 September 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new jaspamide derivatives 2 and 3, together with the parent compound jaspamide (1) have been isolated from the marine sponge Jaspis splendens collected in Kalimantan (Indonesia). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, mass spectrometry and comparison with jaspamide (1). The new derivatives inhibited the growth of mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line in vitro with IC50 values of <0.1 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle 1,5-Diazacyclohenicosane, a New Cytotoxic Metabolite from the Marine Sponge Mycale sp.
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 445-450; doi:10.3390/md7030445
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 7 September 2009 / Accepted: 14 September 2009 / Published: 15 September 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (92 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new cyclic diamine, 1,5-diazacyclohenicosane (1), was isolated from samples of the marine sponge Mycale sp. collected at Lamu Island (Kenya). Its structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including (+)-HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The compound displayed [...] Read more.
A new cyclic diamine, 1,5-diazacyclohenicosane (1), was isolated from samples of the marine sponge Mycale sp. collected at Lamu Island (Kenya). Its structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including (+)-HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The compound displayed cytotoxicity at the μM level against three human tumor cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle Phase II Study of Biweekly Plitidepsin as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 451-463; doi:10.3390/md7030451
Received: 15 July 2009 / Revised: 28 August 2009 / Accepted: 14 September 2009 / Published: 16 September 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this exploratory, open-label, single-arm, phase II clinical trial was to evaluate plitidepsin (5 mg/m2) administered as a 3-hour continuous intravenous infusion every two weeks to patients with locally advanced/metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium who relapsed/progressed after first-line chemotherapy. Treatment cycles were repeated for up to 12 cycles or until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient refusal or treatment delay for >2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate according to RECIST. Secondary endpoints were the rate of SD lasting ≥6 months and time-to-event variables. Toxicity was assessed using NCI-CTC v. 3.0. Twenty-one patients received 57 treatment cycles. No objective tumor responses occurred. SD lasting <6 months was observed in two of 18 evaluable patients. With a median follow-up of 4.6 months, the median PFR and the median OS were 1.4 months and 2.3 months, respectively. The most common AEs were mild to moderate nausea, fatigue, myalgia and anorexia. Anemia, lymphopenia, and increases in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were the most frequent laboratory abnormalities. No severe neutropenia occurred. Treatment was feasible and generally well tolerated in this patient population; however the lack of antitumor activity precludes further studies of plitidepsin in this setting. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of 2-(2’,4’-Dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol from Dysidea granulosa
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 464-471; doi:10.3390/md7030464
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 1 September 2009 / Accepted: 21 September 2009 / Published: 22 September 2009
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2-(2’,4’-Dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa (Bergquist) collected off the coast of Lakshadweep islands, Indian Ocean, exhibited potent and broad spectrum in-vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE), [...] Read more.
2-(2’,4’-Dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa (Bergquist) collected off the coast of Lakshadweep islands, Indian Ocean, exhibited potent and broad spectrum in-vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE), vancomycin sensitive Enterococci (VSE) and Bacillus spp. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against 57 clinical and standard strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The observed MIC range was 0.117-2.5 μg/mL against all the Gram positive bacteria and 0.5-2 μg/mL against Gram negative bacteria. The in-vitro antibacterial activity observed was better than that of the standard antibiotic linezolid, a marketed anti-MRSA drug. The results establish 2-(2’,4’-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol, as a potential lead molecule for anti-MRSA and anti-VRE drug development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Excavatoids E and F: Discovery of Two New Briaranes from the Cultured Octocoral Briareum excavatum
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 472-482; doi:10.3390/md7030472
Received: 26 August 2009 / Revised: 19 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 23 September 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new briarane-related diterpenoids, designated as excavatoids E (1) andF (2), were isolated from the cultured octocoral Briareum excavatum. The structures ofcompounds 1 and 2 were established on the basis of extensive spectral data analysis. Briaranes 1 and 2 were found to [...] Read more.
Two new briarane-related diterpenoids, designated as excavatoids E (1) andF (2), were isolated from the cultured octocoral Briareum excavatum. The structures ofcompounds 1 and 2 were established on the basis of extensive spectral data analysis. Briaranes 1 and 2 were found to exhibit moderate inhibitory effects on elastase release by human neutrophils. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Phage Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy: Low Environmental Impact Approaches to Inactivate Microorganisms in Fish Farming Plants
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 268-313; doi:10.3390/md7030268
Received: 21 May 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 25 June 2009 / Published: 30 June 2009
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Owing to the increasing importance of aquaculture to compensate for the progressive worldwide reduction of natural fish and to the fact that several fish farming plants often suffer from heavy financial losses due to the development of infections caused by microbial pathogens, [...] Read more.
Owing to the increasing importance of aquaculture to compensate for the progressive worldwide reduction of natural fish and to the fact that several fish farming plants often suffer from heavy financial losses due to the development of infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria, more environmentally-friendly strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable. The aim of this review is to briefly present the typical fish farming diseases and their threats and discuss the present state of chemotherapy to inactivate microorganisms in fish farming plants as well as to examine the new environmentally friendly approaches to control fish infection namely phage therapy and photodynamic antimicrobial therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
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Open AccessReview Recent Synthetic Studies Leading to Structural Revisions of Marine Natural Products
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 314-330; doi:10.3390/md7030314
Received: 15 June 2009 / Revised: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 13 July 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of the highly unique structures of marine natural products, there are many examples of structures that were originally proposed based on spectral analyses but later proven incorrect. In many cases, the total syntheses of the originally proposed structures of marine natural [...] Read more.
Because of the highly unique structures of marine natural products, there are many examples of structures that were originally proposed based on spectral analyses but later proven incorrect. In many cases, the total syntheses of the originally proposed structures of marine natural products has confirmed their incorrectness and the subsequent total syntheses of the newly proposed structures proved the revised structures. This review will show such cases appearing after 2005 and demonstrate how the true structures were elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis around Marine Natural Products)
Open AccessReview The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 367-400; doi:10.3390/md7030367
Received: 16 July 2009 / Revised: 6 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form [...] Read more.
Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
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Open AccessReview Marine-Derived Metabolites of S-Adenosylmethionine as Templates for New Anti-Infectives
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 401-434; doi:10.3390/md7030401
Received: 30 July 2009 / Revised: 20 August 2009 / Accepted: 24 August 2009 / Published: 26 August 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids), methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines), polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine), ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine [...] Read more.
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids), methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines), polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine), ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine organisms produce numerous AdoMet metabolites whose novel structures can be regarded as lead compounds for anti-infective drug design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)

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