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Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 268-313; doi:10.3390/md7030268

Phage Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy: Low Environmental Impact Approaches to Inactivate Microorganisms in Fish Farming Plants

1
CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro – Portugal
2
QOPNA and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro – Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 25 June 2009 / Published: 30 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
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Abstract

Owing to the increasing importance of aquaculture to compensate for the progressive worldwide reduction of natural fish and to the fact that several fish farming plants often suffer from heavy financial losses due to the development of infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria, more environmentally-friendly strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable. The aim of this review is to briefly present the typical fish farming diseases and their threats and discuss the present state of chemotherapy to inactivate microorganisms in fish farming plants as well as to examine the new environmentally friendly approaches to control fish infection namely phage therapy and photodynamic antimicrobial therapy.
Keywords: phage therapy; photodynamic therapy; fish farming; antibiotic resistance phage therapy; photodynamic therapy; fish farming; antibiotic resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Almeida, A.; Cunha, Â.; Gomes, N.C.M.; Alves, E.; Costa, L.; Faustino, M.A.F. Phage Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy: Low Environmental Impact Approaches to Inactivate Microorganisms in Fish Farming Plants. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 268-313.

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