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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2007), Pages 894-1012

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Three Dimensional Pharmacophore Modelling of Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 894-919; doi:10.3390/i8090894
Received: 2 May 2007 / Revised: 25 July 2007 / Accepted: 30 July 2007 / Published: 3 September 2007
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Abstract
Flavoprotein monoamine oxidase is located on the outer membrane ofmitochondria. It catalyzes oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters such asserotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine and hence is a target enzyme for antidepressantdrugs. MAO (mono amine oxidase) has two isoforms, namely MAO-A and MAO-B.MAO-A isoform has
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Flavoprotein monoamine oxidase is located on the outer membrane ofmitochondria. It catalyzes oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters such asserotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine and hence is a target enzyme for antidepressantdrugs. MAO (mono amine oxidase) has two isoforms, namely MAO-A and MAO-B.MAO-A isoform has higher affinity for serotonin and norepinephrine, while; MAO-Bpreferentially deaminates phenylethylamine and benzylamine. These important propertiesdetermine the clinical importance of MAO inhibitors. Selective MAO-A inhibitors are usedin the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression. In this article we havedeveloped a Hypogen pharmacophore for a set of 64 coumarin analogs and tried to analyzethe intermolecular H-bonds with receptor structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemical Bond and Bonding)
Open AccessArticle A Possible Industrial Solution to Ferment Lignocellulosic Hydrolyzate to Ethanol: Continuous Cultivation with Flocculating Yeast
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 920-932; doi:10.3390/i8090920
Received: 2 July 2007 / Revised: 9 August 2007 / Accepted: 28 August 2007 / Published: 3 September 2007
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cultivation of toxic lignocellulosic hydrolyzates has become a challengingresearch topic in recent decades. Although several cultivation methods have been proposed,numerous questions have arisen regarding their industrial applications. The current workdeals with a solution to this problem which has a good potential application
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The cultivation of toxic lignocellulosic hydrolyzates has become a challengingresearch topic in recent decades. Although several cultivation methods have been proposed,numerous questions have arisen regarding their industrial applications. The current workdeals with a solution to this problem which has a good potential application on anindustrial scale. A toxic dilute-acid hydrolyzate was continuously cultivated using a high-cell-density flocculating yeast in a single and serial bioreactor which was equipped with asettler to recycle the cells back to the bioreactors. No prior detoxification was necessary tocultivate the hydrolyzates, as the flocks were able to detoxify it in situ. The experimentswere successfully carried out at dilution rates up to 0.52 h-1. The cell concentration insidethe bioreactors was between 23 and 35 g-DW/L, while the concentration in the effluent ofthe settlers was 0.32 ± 0.05 g-DW/L. An ethanol yield of 0.42-0.46 g/g-consumed sugarwas achieved, and the residual sugar concentration was less than 6% of the initialfermentable sugar (glucose, galactose and mannose) of 35.2 g/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels R&D: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs)
Open AccessArticle A Study of Complexation-ability of Neutral Schiff Bases to Some Metal Cations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 933-942; doi:10.3390/i8090933
Received: 30 July 2007 / Revised: 20 August 2007 / Accepted: 27 August 2007 / Published: 4 September 2007
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Abstract
The constants of the extraction equilibrium and the distribution fordichloromethane as an organic solvent having low dielectric constant of metal cations withchiral Schiff bases, benzaldehydene-(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanol (I), o- benzaldehydene-(S)-2-hydroxybenzaldehydene-(S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanol (II),amino-3-methylbutanol (III) with anionic dyes [4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol mono sodiummonohydrate (NaPar), sodium picrat (NaPic) and potassium picrat
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The constants of the extraction equilibrium and the distribution fordichloromethane as an organic solvent having low dielectric constant of metal cations withchiral Schiff bases, benzaldehydene-(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanol (I), o- benzaldehydene-(S)-2-hydroxybenzaldehydene-(S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanol (II),amino-3-methylbutanol (III) with anionic dyes [4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol mono sodiummonohydrate (NaPar), sodium picrat (NaPic) and potassium picrat (KPic)] and some heavymetal chlorides were determined at 25 oC. All the ligands have given strongestcomplexation for NaPar. In contrast, similar behaviour for both alkali metal picrates is notapparent in the complexation of corresponding ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Isotopic Effect on the Kinetics of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 943-949; doi:10.3390/i8090943
Received: 28 June 2007 / Revised: 7 August 2007 / Accepted: 27 August 2007 / Published: 4 September 2007
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present results about the deuterium isotope effect on the globalkinetics of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in batch conditions. A nonlinear dependenceof the Induction Period upon the percentage of deuterated reactants was found. The isotopiceffect on the bromination reaction of malonic
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In this work we present results about the deuterium isotope effect on the globalkinetics of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in batch conditions. A nonlinear dependenceof the Induction Period upon the percentage of deuterated reactants was found. The isotopiceffect on the bromination reaction of malonic acid was evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Relationships between Xanthohumol and Polyphenol Content in Hop Leaves and Hop Cones with Regard to Water Supply and Cultivar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 989-1000; doi:10.3390/i8090989
Received: 30 May 2007 / Revised: 20 August 2007 / Accepted: 9 September 2007 / Published: 12 September 2007
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of water supply – especially of drought stress – on the content ofsome secondary metabolites in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied. The experimenttook place in 2006. Some relevant data from 2005 were included for comparison. Leavesand cones of nine hop
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The effect of water supply – especially of drought stress – on the content ofsome secondary metabolites in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied. The experimenttook place in 2006. Some relevant data from 2005 were included for comparison. Leavesand cones of nine hop cultivars grown under field conditions as well as in a pot experimentunder three water regimes were analyzed. The cultivars ranged from those most grown inSlovenia to promising crossbreed being tested. Leaves were sampled from July 18, 2006 toAugust 18, 2006, while cones were picked in the time of technological maturity. Standardanalytical methods were applied to determine the contents of xanthohumol, polyphenolsand α-acids in hop leaves and hop cones. The contents of the secondary metabolites inquestion depended more on the cultivar under investigation than on the water supply, atleast as far the growing conditions for a relatively normal development of the plant weremet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Open AccessArticle Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leave
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 1001-1012; doi:10.3390/i8091001
Received: 30 May 2007 / Revised: 20 August 2007 / Accepted: 6 September 2007 / Published: 14 September 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means inducedby biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits ofCnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide withacceptable curative properties
[...] Read more.
Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means inducedby biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits ofCnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide withacceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72), but it also showed a significantprophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36) against pumpkin powdery mildew at aconcentration of 100 μg·mL-1. In pumpkin leaves with/or without inoculation ofSphaerotheca fuliginea, osthol treatment induced the accumulation of chitinase andperoxidase and enhanced the transcription of chitinase gene in non-inoculated leaves. Thepotentiation of phenylalanine amonia-lyase activity in leaves by osthol application andfollowing inoculation was absent in that with inoculation or osthol treatment, indicatingthat induced PAL in osthol-pretreated plants was inoculation-mediated. In conclusion, thisnatural compound could induce resistance response in the plant against powdery mildew. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8(9), 950-988; doi:10.3390/i8090950
Received: 12 June 2007 / Revised: 27 August 2007 / Accepted: 27 August 2006 / Published: 12 September 2007
Cited by 292 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant,
[...] Read more.
Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB) activation, activator protein-1(AP-1) DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols. Full article

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