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Special Issue "Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Antivirals & Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kenneth McCullough

Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Sensemattstrasse 293, CH-3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
E-Mail
Fax: +41 31 848 9222
Interests: picornaviruses; circoviruses; influenza viruses; pestiviruses; virus infection of macrophages and dendritic cells; immune responses against viruses; vaccine targeting to dendritic cells; synthetic particle-based vaccines

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Developing Vaccines to Combat Pandemic Influenza
Viruses 2010, 2(2), 532-546; doi:10.3390/v2020532
Received: 25 November 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 29 January 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent
[...] Read more.
Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent H5N1 virus and at the same time place the H5 HA and N1 NA on a background of PR8, a virus that has been used over many decades to provide high yielding vaccine viruses. Reverse genetics has also been used successfully alongside classical reassorting techniques in the development of (swine flu) pandemic A(H1N1)v vaccine viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview RNA Replicons - A New Approach for Influenza Virus Immunoprophylaxis
Viruses 2010, 2(2), 413-434; doi:10.3390/v2020413
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 25 January 2010 / Accepted: 27 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RNA replicons are derived from either positive- or negative-strand RNA viruses. They represent disabled virus vectors that are not only avirulent, but also unable to revert to virulence. Due to autonomous RNA replication, RNA replicons are able to drive high level, cytosolic expression
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RNA replicons are derived from either positive- or negative-strand RNA viruses. They represent disabled virus vectors that are not only avirulent, but also unable to revert to virulence. Due to autonomous RNA replication, RNA replicons are able to drive high level, cytosolic expression of recombinant antigens stimulating both the humoral and the cellular branch of the immune system. This review provides an update on the available literature covering influenza virus vaccines based on RNA replicons. The pros and cons of these vaccine strategies will be discussed and future perspectives disclosed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses
Viruses 2010, 2(1), 166-188; doi:10.3390/v2010166
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current pandemic caused by the new influenza A(H1N1) virus of swine origin and the current pandemic threat caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype have renewed the interest in the development of vaccines that can induce
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The current pandemic caused by the new influenza A(H1N1) virus of swine origin and the current pandemic threat caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype have renewed the interest in the development of vaccines that can induce broad protective immunity. Preferably, vaccines not only provide protection against the homologous strains, but also against heterologous strains, even of another subtype. Here we describe viral targets and the arms of the immune response involved in protection against influenza virus infections such as antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and the M2 protein and cellular immune responses directed against the internal viral proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Figures

Open AccessReview H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1351-1363; doi:10.3390/v1031351
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 28 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its emergence in South East Asia in 2003, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 has reportedly caused outbreaks in poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries, of which 24 were in Europe. Interestingly, out of the many genetic clades circulating in Asia,
[...] Read more.
Since its emergence in South East Asia in 2003, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 has reportedly caused outbreaks in poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries, of which 24 were in Europe. Interestingly, out of the many genetic clades circulating in Asia, the westward spread of HPAI A/H5N1 to Central Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa was dominated by one single clade, namely clade 2.2. In this paper, we review and update through phylogenetic and gene migrational analysis the information concerning the evolution and the molecular epidemiology of HPAI A/H5N1 on the European continent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1089-1109; doi:10.3390/v1031089
Received: 14 August 2009 / Revised: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the
[...] Read more.
Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview A Closer Look at the NS1 of Influenza Virus
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1057-1072; doi:10.3390/v1031057
Received: 10 September 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 25 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Non-Structural 1 (NS1) protein is a multifactorial protein of type A influenza viruses that plays an important role in the virulence of the virus. A large amount of what we know about this protein has been obtained from studies using human influenza
[...] Read more.
The Non-Structural 1 (NS1) protein is a multifactorial protein of type A influenza viruses that plays an important role in the virulence of the virus. A large amount of what we know about this protein has been obtained from studies using human influenza isolates and, consequently, the human NS1 protein. The current global interest in avian influenza, however, has highlighted a number of sequence and functional differences between the human and avian NS1. This review discusses these differences in addition to describing potential uses of NS1 in the management and control of avian influenza outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Influenza Virus
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1022-1034; doi:10.3390/v1031022
Received: 23 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (78 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic cells (DC) are major players in both innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus. These immune responses, as well as the important interface between the innate and adaptive systems, are orchestrated by specialized subsets of DC, including conventional steady-state DC, migratory
[...] Read more.
Dendritic cells (DC) are major players in both innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus. These immune responses, as well as the important interface between the innate and adaptive systems, are orchestrated by specialized subsets of DC, including conventional steady-state DC, migratory DC and plasmacytoid DC. The characteristics and efficacy of the responses are dependent on the relative activity of these DC subsets, rendering DC crucial for the development of both naïve and memory immune responses. However, due to their critical role, DC also contribute to the immunopathological processes observed during acute influenza, such as that caused by the pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Therein, the role of different DC subsets in the induction of interferon type I, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses is important for the outcome of interaction between the virus and host immune defences. The present review will present current knowledge on this area, relating to the importance of DC activity for the induction of efficacious humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This will include the main viral elements associated with the triggering or inhibition of DC activation. Finally, the current knowledge on understanding how differences in various vaccines influence the manner of immune defence induction will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Open AccessReview A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia
Viruses 2009, 1(3), 335-361; doi:10.3390/v1030335
Received: 6 July 2009 / Revised: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 2 October 2009 / Published: 6 October 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (4462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus
[...] Read more.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
Figures

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