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Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1089-1109; doi:10.3390/v1031089
Review

Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges

1,* , 2
 and 2
Received: 14 August 2009; in revised form: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [161 KB, uploaded 8 December 2009]
Abstract: Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues.
Keywords: influenza; H5N1; H1N1; pandemic; vaccine; haemagglutinin (HA); neuraminidase (NA) influenza; H5N1; H1N1; pandemic; vaccine; haemagglutinin (HA); neuraminidase (NA)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haaheim, L.R.; Madhun, A.S.; Cox, R. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges. Viruses 2009, 1, 1089-1109.

AMA Style

Haaheim LR, Madhun AS, Cox R. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):1089-1109.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haaheim, Lars R.; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Cox, Rebecca. 2009. "Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges." Viruses 1, no. 3: 1089-1109.



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