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Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges
Myrdalskogen 95, N-5117 Ulset, Norway
Influenza Centre, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Laboratory Building, 5th Floor, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2009; in revised form: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Abstract: Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues.
Keywords: influenza; H5N1; H1N1; pandemic; vaccine; haemagglutinin (HA); neuraminidase (NA)
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Haaheim, L.R.; Madhun, A.S.; Cox, R. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges. Viruses 2009, 1, 1089-1109.
Haaheim LR, Madhun AS, Cox R. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):1089-1109.
Haaheim, Lars R.; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Cox, Rebecca. 2009. "Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges." Viruses 1, no. 3: 1089-1109.