Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1351-1363; doi:10.3390/v1031351
Review

H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview

Received: 18 September 2009; in revised form: 28 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Since its emergence in South East Asia in 2003, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 has reportedly caused outbreaks in poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries, of which 24 were in Europe. Interestingly, out of the many genetic clades circulating in Asia, the westward spread of HPAI A/H5N1 to Central Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa was dominated by one single clade, namely clade 2.2. In this paper, we review and update through phylogenetic and gene migrational analysis the information concerning the evolution and the molecular epidemiology of HPAI A/H5N1 on the European continent.
Keywords: Europe; H5N1; avian influenza
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cattoli, G.; Fusaro, A.; Monne, I.; Capua, I. H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview. Viruses 2009, 1, 1351-1363.

AMA Style

Cattoli G, Fusaro A, Monne I, Capua I. H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview. Viruses. 2009; 1(3):1351-1363.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cattoli, Giovanni; Fusaro, Alice; Monne, Isabella; Capua, Ilaria. 2009. "H5N1 Virus Evolution in Europe—An Updated Overview." Viruses 1, no. 3: 1351-1363.

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