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Viruses 2010, 2(1), 166-188; doi:10.3390/v2010166
Review

Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses

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Received: 31 August 2009; in revised form: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 13 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza: Pandemics and Vaccinations)
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Abstract: The current pandemic caused by the new influenza A(H1N1) virus of swine origin and the current pandemic threat caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype have renewed the interest in the development of vaccines that can induce broad protective immunity. Preferably, vaccines not only provide protection against the homologous strains, but also against heterologous strains, even of another subtype. Here we describe viral targets and the arms of the immune response involved in protection against influenza virus infections such as antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and the M2 protein and cellular immune responses directed against the internal viral proteins.
Keywords: influenza; protective immunity; pandemic influenza; protective immunity; pandemic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bodewes, R.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses. Viruses 2010, 2, 166-188.

AMA Style

Bodewes R, Osterhaus AD, Rimmelzwaan GF. Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses. Viruses. 2010; 2(1):166-188.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bodewes, Rogier; Osterhaus, Albert D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F. 2010. "Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses." Viruses 2, no. 1: 166-188.


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