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Special Issue "Adenoviral Vectors"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. David T. Curiel (Website)

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, 4511 Forest Park, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA
Phone: 3147475443
Fax: +1 314 362 9797
Interests: adenovirus; virotherapy; gene therapy

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview The Adenovirus Genome Contributes to the Structural Stability of the Virion
Viruses 2014, 6(9), 3563-3583; doi:10.3390/v6093563
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are currently the most commonly used platform for therapeutic gene delivery in human gene therapy clinical trials. Although these vectors are effective, many researchers seek to further improve the safety and efficacy of Ad-based vectors through detailed characterization of [...] Read more.
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are currently the most commonly used platform for therapeutic gene delivery in human gene therapy clinical trials. Although these vectors are effective, many researchers seek to further improve the safety and efficacy of Ad-based vectors through detailed characterization of basic Ad biology relevant to its function as a vector system. Most Ad vectors are deleted of key, or all, viral protein coding sequences, which functions to not only prevent virus replication but also increase the cloning capacity of the vector for foreign DNA. However, radical modifications to the genome size significantly decreases virion stability, suggesting that the virus genome plays a role in maintaining the physical stability of the Ad virion. Indeed, a similar relationship between genome size and virion stability has been noted for many viruses. This review discusses the impact of the genome size on Ad virion stability and emphasizes the need to consider this aspect of virus biology in Ad-based vector design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors
Viruses 2010, 2(10), 2290-2355; doi:10.3390/v2102290
Received: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 7 October 2010 / Published: 13 October 2010
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (2108 KB)
Abstract
Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate [...] Read more.
Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad) have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX), or alternatively, through the use of polymer-coated “stealth” vectors which avoid these interactions. Simultaneous retargeting and detargeting can be achieved by combining multiple genetic and/or chemical modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Serotype Chimeric Human Adenoviruses for Cancer GeneTherapy
Viruses 2010, 2(10), 2196-2212; doi:10.3390/v2102196
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 16 August 2010 / Accepted: 22 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (170 KB)
Abstract
Cancer gene therapy consists of numerous approaches where the common denominator is utilization of vectors for achieving therapeutic effect. A particularly potent embodiment of the approach is virotherapy, in which the replication potential of an oncolytic virus is directed towards tumor cells [...] Read more.
Cancer gene therapy consists of numerous approaches where the common denominator is utilization of vectors for achieving therapeutic effect. A particularly potent embodiment of the approach is virotherapy, in which the replication potential of an oncolytic virus is directed towards tumor cells to cause lysis, while normal cells are spared. Importantly, the therapeutic effect of the initial viral load is amplified through viral replication cycles and production of progeny virions. All cancer gene therapy approaches rely on a sufficient level of delivery of the anticancer agent into target cells. Thus,enhancement of delivery to target cells, and reduction of delivery to non-target cells, in an approach called transductional targeting, is attractive. Both genetic and non-genetic retargeting strategies have been utilized. However, in the context of oncolytic viruses, it is beneficial to have the specific modification included in progeny virions and hence genetic modification may be preferable. Serotype chimerism utilizes serotype specific differences in receptor usage, liver tropism and seroprevalence in order to gain enhanced infection of target tissue. This review will focus on serotype chimeric adenoviruses for cancer gene therapy applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 2134-2153; doi:10.3390/v2092134
Received: 25 June 2010 / Revised: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 24 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (536 KB)
Abstract
Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors [...] Read more.
Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Improving Adenovirus Based Gene Transfer: Strategies to Accomplish Immune Evasion
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 2013-2036; doi:10.3390/v2092013
Received: 9 July 2010 / Revised: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 24 September 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (301 KB)
Abstract
Adenovirus (Ad) based gene transfer vectors continue to be the platform of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials worldwide. In fact, within the last five years, the number of clinical trials that utilize Ad based vectors has doubled, indicating growing [...] Read more.
Adenovirus (Ad) based gene transfer vectors continue to be the platform of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials worldwide. In fact, within the last five years, the number of clinical trials that utilize Ad based vectors has doubled, indicating growing enthusiasm for the numerous positive characteristics of this gene transfer platform. For example, Ad vectors can be easily and relatively inexpensively produced to high titers in a cGMP compliant manner, can be stably stored and transported, and have a broad applicability for a wide range of clinical conditions, including both gene therapy and vaccine applications. Ad vector based gene transfer will become more useful as strategies to counteract innate and/or pre-existing adaptive immune responses to Ads are developed and confirmed to be efficacious. The approaches attempting to overcome these limitations can be divided into two broad categories: pre-emptive immune modulation of the host, and selective modification of the Ad vector itself. The first category of methods includes the use of immunosuppressive drugs or specific compounds to block important immune pathways, which are known to be induced by Ads. The second category comprises several innovative strategies inclusive of: (1) Ad-capsid-display of specific inhibitors or ligands; (2) covalent modifications of the entire Ad vector capsid moiety; (3) the use of tissue specific promoters and local administration routes; (4) the use of genome modified Ads; and (5) the development of chimeric or alternative serotype Ads. This review article will focus on both the promise and the limitations of each of these immune evasion strategies, and in the process delineate future directions in developing safer and more efficacious Ad-based gene transfer strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Gene Therapy with Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors: Current Advances and Future Perspectives
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 1886-1917; doi:10.3390/v2091886
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 26 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1586 KB)
Abstract
Recombinant Adenoviral vectors represent one of the best gene transfer platforms due to their ability to efficiently transduce a wide range of quiescent and proliferating cell types from various tissues and species. The activation of an adaptive immune response against the transduced [...] Read more.
Recombinant Adenoviral vectors represent one of the best gene transfer platforms due to their ability to efficiently transduce a wide range of quiescent and proliferating cell types from various tissues and species. The activation of an adaptive immune response against the transduced cells is one of the major drawbacks of first generation Adenovirus vectors and has been overcome by the latest generation of recombinant Adenovirus, the Helper-Dependent Adenoviral (HDAd) vectors. HDAds have innovative features including the complete absence of viral coding sequences and the ability to mediate high level transgene expression with negligible chronic toxicity. This review summarizes the many aspects of HDAd biology and structure with a major focus on in vivo gene therapy application and with an emphasis on the unsolved issues that these vectors still presents toward clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors
Viruses 2010, 2(9), 1844-1866; doi:10.3390/v2091844
Received: 23 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (318 KB)
Abstract
Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of [...] Read more.
Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Adenoviral Producer Cells
Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1681-1703; doi:10.3390/v2081681
Received: 16 June 2010 / Revised: 30 July 2010 / Accepted: 13 August 2010 / Published: 16 August 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors, in particular those of the serotype 5, are highly attractive for a wide range of gene therapy, vaccine and virotherapy applications (as discussed in further detail in this issue). Wild type Ad5 virus can replicate in numerous tissue types [...] Read more.
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors, in particular those of the serotype 5, are highly attractive for a wide range of gene therapy, vaccine and virotherapy applications (as discussed in further detail in this issue). Wild type Ad5 virus can replicate in numerous tissue types but to use Ad vectors for therapeutic purposes the viral genome requires modification. In particular, if the viral genome is modified in such a way that the viral life cycle is interfered with, a specific producer cell line is required to provide trans-complementation to overcome the modification and allow viral production. This can occur in two ways; use of a producer cell line that contains specific adenoviral sequences incorporated into the cell genome to trans-complement, or use of a producer cell line that naturally complements for the modified Ad vector genome. This review concentrates on producer cell lines that complement non-replicating adenoviral vectors, starting with the historical HEK293 cell line developed in 1977 for first generation Ad vectors. In addition the problem of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) contamination in viral preparations from HEK293 cells is addressed leading to the development of alternate cell lines. Furthermore novel cell lines for more complex Ad vectors and alternate serotype Ad vectors are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenoviral Vectors)

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