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An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors
Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535, 1919 Route de Mende Montpellier, 34293 France
Université de Montpellier I, 5 Bd Henri IV, 34000 Montpellier, France
Université de Montpellier II, place Eugène Bataillon, 34090 Montpellier, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2010; in revised form: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 24 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Abstract: Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.
Keywords: canine adenovirus; vectors; CAV-2; CAR; gene therapy; neurons; immunity; retrograde transport; neurodegenerative diseases; vaccines
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Bru, T.; Salinas, S.; Kremer, E.J. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors. Viruses 2010, 2, 2134-2153.
Bru T, Salinas S, Kremer EJ. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors. Viruses. 2010; 2(9):2134-2153.
Bru, Thierry; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J. 2010. "An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors." Viruses 2, no. 9: 2134-2153.