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Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans
Department of Microbiology and the Emerging Pathogens Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2012; in revised form: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Abstract: Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. However, when humans are infected, a strong inflammatory response is usually induced, characterized by elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines in serum, believed to be important in the severe pathogenesis that develops in a high proportion of these patients. Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans.
Keywords: H5N1; influenza virus; cytokines; innate immunity; virulence factors; antiviral response
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ramos, I.; Fernandez-Sesma, A. Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans. Viruses 2012, 4, 3363-3388.
Ramos I, Fernandez-Sesma A. Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3363-3388.
Ramos, Irene; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana. 2012. "Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3363-3388.