Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3012-3019; doi:10.3390/v4113012
Article

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses

1,* email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 2email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 25 August 2012; in revised form: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.
Keywords: nanoparticle; H5N1; swine influenza A virus; nanomicroarray
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Ragupathy, V.; Zhang, P.; Tang, W.; Ye, Z.; Eichelberger, M.; Hewlett, I. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses. Viruses 2012, 4, 3012-3019.

AMA Style

Zhao J, Wang X, Ragupathy V, Zhang P, Tang W, Ye Z, Eichelberger M, Hewlett I. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses. Viruses. 2012; 4(11):3012-3019.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Jiangqin; Wang, Xue; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Zhang, Panhe; Tang, Wei; Ye, Zhiping; Eichelberger, Maryna; Hewlett, Indira. 2012. "Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses." Viruses 4, no. 11: 3012-3019.


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