Special Issue "Animal Models of Disease"

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A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Duncan C. Ferguson (Website)

Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Interests: comparative thyroidology and endocrinology; veterinary clinical pharmacology; effect of environmental and nutritional compounds on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and neurodevelopment; obesity; diabetes; distance education pedagogy

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.



Keywords

  • comparative medicine
  • animal disease
  • animal models
  • animal pathophysiology
  • veterinary diagnosis
  • veterinary therapy
  • translational medicine
  • One Medicine
  • One Health

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Animal Models and Better Understanding of “One Medicine”
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 3-4; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010003
Received: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
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Abstract
Medical science has long been informed by the study of animal physiology and pathophysiology, both spontaneous and induced. Physiologist Claude Bernard studied dogs to better understand pancreatic, hepatic and cardiovascular homeostasis [1,2]. Best and Banting uncovered the function of insulin through studies [...] Read more.
Medical science has long been informed by the study of animal physiology and pathophysiology, both spontaneous and induced. Physiologist Claude Bernard studied dogs to better understand pancreatic, hepatic and cardiovascular homeostasis [1,2]. Best and Banting uncovered the function of insulin through studies in experimental dogs [3]. More recent studies of obesity in cats have found similarities and interesting differences in the manifestation of the adverse effects of overnutrition between cats and humans [4]. The complete sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, and deep sequencing of pig, cattle, dog and cat have opened up the opportunity to systematically compare genetic similarities and differences [5,6]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of a Standardized Novel Animal Model for Cervical Vertebral Augmentation in Sheep Using a PTH Derivate Bioactive Material
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 96-120; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020096
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
Prophylactic local treatment involving percutaneous vertebral augmentation using bioactive materials is a new treatment strategy in spine surgery in humans for vertebral bodies at risk. Standardized animal models for this procedure are almost non-existent. The purpose of this study was to: (i) [...] Read more.
Prophylactic local treatment involving percutaneous vertebral augmentation using bioactive materials is a new treatment strategy in spine surgery in humans for vertebral bodies at risk. Standardized animal models for this procedure are almost non-existent. The purpose of this study was to: (i) prove the efficacy of PTH derivate bioactive materials for new bone formation; and (ii) create a new, highly standardized cervical vertebral augmentation model in sheep. Three different concentrations of a modified form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) covalently bound to a fibrin matrix containing strontium carbonate were used. The same matrix without PTH and shams were used as controls. The bioactive materials were locally injected. Using a ventral surgical approach, a pre-set amount of material was injected under fluoroscopic guidance into the intertrabecular space of three vertebral bodies. Intravital fluorescent dyes were used to demonstrate new bone formation. After an observation period of four months, the animals were sacrificed, and vertebral bodies were processed for µCT, histomorphometry, histology and sequential fluorescence evaluation. Enhanced localized bone activity and new bone formation in the injected area could be determined for all experimental groups in comparison to the matrix alone and sham with the highest values detected for the group with a medium concentration of PTH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessArticle Long-Term Changes in Pain Sensitivity in an Animal Model of Social Anxiety
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 77-95; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020077
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
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Abstract
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for [...] Read more.
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10). SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure), increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia) was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce emotional changes associated with a stressful/traumatic event. In addition, they indicate that variations in the nociceptive threshold might represent a physiological marker of both short- and long-term effects of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

Review

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Open AccessReview Experimental Animal Models of Arteriovenous Malformation: A Review
Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(2), 97-110; doi:10.3390/vetsci2020097
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
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Abstract
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions that cause brain haemorrhage in children and young adults. Current treatment modalities include surgery, radiosurgery and embolization. These treatments are generally effective only for small AVMs. Over one third of AVMs cannot be treated safely and [...] Read more.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital lesions that cause brain haemorrhage in children and young adults. Current treatment modalities include surgery, radiosurgery and embolization. These treatments are generally effective only for small AVMs. Over one third of AVMs cannot be treated safely and effectively with existing options. Several animal models have been developed with the aims of understanding AVM pathophysiology and improving treatment. No animal model perfectly mimics a human AVM. Each model has limitations and advantages. Models contribute to the understanding of AVMs and hopefully to the development of improved therapies. This paper reviews animal models of AVMs and their advantages and disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Animal Models of Allergic Diseases
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(3), 192-212; doi:10.3390/vetsci1030192
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in [...] Read more.
Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 121-135; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020121
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
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Abstract
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although [...] Read more.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control; however, insulin resistance alone is not a good indicator of progression to diabetes in people or pets. A loss of beta cell function is necessary to provide the link to impaired fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose. Increased endogenous glucose output by the liver is also a prerequisite for the increase in fasting blood glucose when non-diabetic obese humans and pets develop diabetes. This may be due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin concentrations, or a combination of both. While inflammation is a major link between obesity and diabetes in humans, there is little evidence that a similar phenomenon exists in cats. In dogs, more studies are needed to examine this important issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Respiratory Animal Models in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 63-76; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010063
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or [...] Read more.
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys). The marmoset has the size of a rat (350–450 g), is easier to handle, and the husbandry, care, and management of colonies is much easier compared to OWMs. In contrast to rodents, marmosets provide a high homology to humans, which become especially visible in lung architecture and branching pattern. Features of inflammatory (e.g., COPD) pulmonary diseases can be modeled in marmosets as well the species is used to study bacterial and viral infection. Models for human melioidosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, as well as infections with SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), influenza A virus and adenovirus are already established. Toxicological studies often use marmoset monkeys for the advantage of immunological identical twins that are produced by a Callitrichinae-specific placentation type, which ultimately causes blood chimerism. Relatively new approaches in gene therapy use marmosets for respiratory disease research. In this review we will give an overview of existing respiratory marmoset models and their impact on biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 40-62; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010040
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections [...] Read more.
Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 16-39; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010016
Received: 29 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

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