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Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 121-135; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020121

Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1008 W. Hazelwood Drive, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
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Abstract

Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control; however, insulin resistance alone is not a good indicator of progression to diabetes in people or pets. A loss of beta cell function is necessary to provide the link to impaired fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose. Increased endogenous glucose output by the liver is also a prerequisite for the increase in fasting blood glucose when non-diabetic obese humans and pets develop diabetes. This may be due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin concentrations, or a combination of both. While inflammation is a major link between obesity and diabetes in humans, there is little evidence that a similar phenomenon exists in cats. In dogs, more studies are needed to examine this important issue. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; obesity; beta cells; gluconeogenesis; glycolysis; cytokines; adiponectin; leptin; insulin; fructosamine diabetes; obesity; beta cells; gluconeogenesis; glycolysis; cytokines; adiponectin; leptin; insulin; fructosamine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hoenig, M. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes. Vet. Sci. 2014, 1, 121-135.

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