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Special Issue "Transport Policy"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefan Gössling

Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University, Sweden; School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Sweden; Western Norway Research Institute
Website | E-Mail
Interests: tourism; transportation; sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Transport policy makers face growing challenges, including concerns over air pollution and health, high accident numbers, rising emissions of greenhouse gases, infrastructure expansion limits and traffic density. All of these are reflections of transport systems facing breaking points. Yet, while politicians will often be aware of problems, willingness to work towards more sustainable transport futures has remained limited.

As an example, the bicycle is a transport mode that is both politically warranted and socially favoured, but progress in re-assigning even smaller shares of road infrastructure to cyclists has remained slow. Air traffic is growing at a massive scale, with conflicts over new runways, and very limited evidence that the sector’s global warming impacts will be addressed: Curbing air travel, if only by reducing subsidies to the sector, is a political taboo. Socially beneficial developments are observable with regard to Information and Communication Technologies, which continue to revolutionise public transport systems. Ride share systems have become common in some parts of the world, replacing the private car. Electric, automated mobility is close to becoming technically feasible. Yet, all of these have in common that policy makers seem reluctant to pro-actively address developments and to support the emergence of socially and environmentally more desirable transport systems.

Against this background, this special issue focuses on transport policy, including all major transport modes, i.e., aviation, automobility, train and bus systems, cycling and walking. It encourages theoretical and empirical contributions covering all policy dimensions, i.e. social, environmental and economic perspectives; market-based, soft policy, command-and-control approaches to change as implemented by policy leaders; decision-making processes; subsidies and incentives; lobbyism, as well as any other perspective that can provide an understanding of the political impasse in sustainable transport governance. Contributors are encouraged to discuss papers with the Guest Editor before submission.

Prof. Dr. Stefan Gössling
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Transport policy
  • Transport behavior
  • Urban transport
  • Institutions
  • Lobbyism

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Technological Response Options after the VW Diesel Scandal: Implications for Engine CO2 Emissions
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072313
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
In the VW diesel scandal, automakers were found to be cheating with emission data, by e.g., tampering with on-board detection systems. We have calculated changes in the energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents that would arise through several options open to
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In the VW diesel scandal, automakers were found to be cheating with emission data, by e.g., tampering with on-board detection systems. We have calculated changes in the energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents that would arise through several options open to automakers, to ensure that the emission of nitrogen oxides is kept within the standards. Several studies show how manufacturers have also significantly underreported vehicles’ actual fuel consumption. We explain our derivation of new factors for energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars, as well as their electric hybrid varieties. The results of the analysis show that energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents will increase in the range of 18–21% for passenger cars with diesel and hybrid diesel engines, while for cars with gasoline and hybrid gasoline, the addition is 9–10%. The analysis highlights an environmental dilemma of current car technology, but also the path-dependent ways of thinking that have been prevalent within the automotive sector. From a sociotechnical sustainability transitions perspective, Dieselgate can be viewed as a case of “regime resistance”, whereby incumbent actors seek to maintain the status quo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle “I Drive outside of Peak Time to Avoid Traffic Jams—Public Transport Is Not Attractive Here.” Challenging Discourses on Travel to the University Campus in Manila
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051462
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
One of the major narratives in transport policy internationally concerns the promotion of private versus public modes. The Global North has many examples where public transport, walking and cycling networks are well developed, yet examples from the Global South are less evident. There
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One of the major narratives in transport policy internationally concerns the promotion of private versus public modes. The Global North has many examples where public transport, walking and cycling networks are well developed, yet examples from the Global South are less evident. There is a historical failure of replicating policies and practices from the Global North, particularly in perpetuating the highway building model, often unsuitable to the cultural contexts in the Global South. This paper examines individual attitudes and discourses concerning travel to De La Salle University campus, in Metro Manila, the Philippines. 42 participants are surveyed using Q methodology. Four discourses are developed, reflecting attitudes to growing automobility in Manila, public transport service provision, the difficulties of travelling in the city and the aspiration for increased comfort whilst travelling. Manila provides an example of the complexities in moving towards greater sustainable travel in the southeast Asian context where levels of private car usage are already high. It is hoped that a greater awareness of the problems of the current travel experiences might lead to us to seek different narratives, where transport systems can be developed which better serve social equity and environmental goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Spatial Structure of Urban Commuting Using Mobile Phone Location Data: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051435
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
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Abstract
Understanding commuting patterns has been a classic research topic in the fields of geography, transportation and urban planning, and it is significant for handling the increasingly serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution and their impacts on the quality of life. Traditional studies
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Understanding commuting patterns has been a classic research topic in the fields of geography, transportation and urban planning, and it is significant for handling the increasingly serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution and their impacts on the quality of life. Traditional studies have used travel survey data to investigate commuting from the aspects of commuting mode, efficiency and influence factors. Due to the limited sample size of these data, it is difficult to examine the large-scale commuting patterns of urban citizens, especially when exploring the spatial structure of commuting. This study attempts to understand the spatial structure characteristics generated by human commutes to work by using massive mobile phone datasets. A three-step workflow was proposed to accomplish this goal, which includes extracting the home and work locations of phone users, detecting the communities from the commuting network, and identifying the commuting convergence and divergence areas for each community. A case study of Shenzhen, China was implemented to determine the commuting structure. We found that there are thirteen communities detected from the commuting network and that some of the communities are in accordance with urban planning; moreover, spatial polycentric polygons exist in each community. These findings can be referenced by urban planners or policy-makers to optimize the spatial layout of the urban functional zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Potential Impacts of China 2030 High-Speed Rail Network on Ground Transportation Accessibility
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041270
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
China has proposed an ambitious high-speed rail (HSR) program by 2030 to connect all provincial capitals (excluding Lhasa) and large cities with more than half million people. Little attention has been paid to evaluate its potential impacts on ground transportation accessibility. To answer
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China has proposed an ambitious high-speed rail (HSR) program by 2030 to connect all provincial capitals (excluding Lhasa) and large cities with more than half million people. Little attention has been paid to evaluate its potential impacts on ground transportation accessibility. To answer this question, we adopted a door-to-door approach to calculate two indicators: the weighted average travel time and daily accessibility. The results show that the HSR network follows the same spatial patterns of population size and regional development, thus preferentially serving eastern China. The two accessibility indicators suggest that the large-scale construction of HSR network by 2030 will substantially improve accessibility and alter the spatial disparities of accessibility. On average, accessibility of all cities will increase by 61.7%. Geographically, cities with higher accessibility are located in the quadrilateral area of ‘Wuhan-Zhengzhou-Jinan-Nanjing’ on the southeastern section of the ‘Hu Line.’ While the least accessible cities are distributed in peripheral areas. Although the HSR development can benefit accessibility throughout the country, the disparities of accessibility would widen slightly among regions, provinces and cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Automated Mobility Transitions: Governing Processes in the UK
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040956
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Contemporary systems of mobility are undergoing a transition towards automation. In the UK, this transition is being led by (often new) partnerships between incumbent manufacturers and new entrants, in collaboration with national governments, local/regional councils, and research institutions. This paper first offers a
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Contemporary systems of mobility are undergoing a transition towards automation. In the UK, this transition is being led by (often new) partnerships between incumbent manufacturers and new entrants, in collaboration with national governments, local/regional councils, and research institutions. This paper first offers a framework for analyzing the governance of the transition, adapting ideas from the Transition Management (TM) perspective, and then applies the framework to ongoing automated vehicle transition dynamics in the UK. The empirical analysis suggests that the UK has adopted a reasonably comprehensive approach to the governing of automated vehicle innovation but that this approach cannot be characterized as sufficiently inclusive, democratic, diverse and open. The lack of inclusivity, democracy, diversity and openness is symptomatic of the post-political character of how the UK’s automated mobility transition is being governed. The paper ends with a call for a reconfiguration of the automated vehicle transition in the UK and beyond, so that much more space is created for dissent and for reflexive and comprehensive big picture thinking on (automated) mobility futures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle The Sustainability of Shared Mobility in London: The Dilemma for Governance
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020420
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of governments in the regulation of potentially beneficial low carbon practices, such as car sharing, has proved difficult, as there are many different actors involved and as existing practices can be undermined. The mobility sector provides clear evidence of these dilemmas,
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The role of governments in the regulation of potentially beneficial low carbon practices, such as car sharing, has proved difficult, as there are many different actors involved and as existing practices can be undermined. The mobility sector provides clear evidence of these dilemmas, as a wide range of users need to be engaged in the discourse over the innovations, and as existing governance structures may be unsuitable for addressing both the opportunities and limitations of innovation. This paper focuses on the sustainability implications of shared mobility and the need for new approaches to governance. A qualitative study of car sharing in London is used to examine the ideas, incentives, and institutions of the key actors involved in this sharing sector. The elements of change and continuity in the emerging sharing economy indicate the different possibilities for enhancing sustainable mobility. Any search for an alternative governance regime should take account of the ideational factors that would require an understanding of the different incentives needed to accommodate the full range of actors involved with the sharing economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
Open AccessArticle Road Safety Risk Assessment: An Analysis of Transport Policy and Management for Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Asian Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020389
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Road safety assessment has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of transport management systems. This paper focuses on risk evaluation in the Asian region by exploring the interaction between road safety risk and influencing factors. In the first stage, a
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Road safety assessment has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of transport management systems. This paper focuses on risk evaluation in the Asian region by exploring the interaction between road safety risk and influencing factors. In the first stage, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is applied to calculate and rank the road safety risk levels of Asian countries. In the second stage, a structural equation model (SEM) with latent variables is applied to analyze the interaction between the road safety risk level and the latent variables, measured by six observed performance indicators, i.e., financial impact, institutional framework, infrastructure and mobility, legislation and policy, vehicular road users, and trauma management. Finally, this paper illustrates the applicability of this DEA-SEM approach for road safety performance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Developing and Assessing Alternative Land-Use Scenarios from the MOLAND Model: A Scenario-Based Impact Analysis Approach for the Evaluation of Rapid Rail Provisions and Urban Development in the Greater Dublin Region
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010061
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, environmental sustainability implications of planned rail infrastructure investments on the urban form and development in the Greater Dublin Region (GDR) have been analysed incorporating the scenario analysis approach. Various scenarios are developed using the MOLAND Model applications including: A baseline
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In this study, environmental sustainability implications of planned rail infrastructure investments on the urban form and development in the Greater Dublin Region (GDR) have been analysed incorporating the scenario analysis approach. Various scenarios are developed using the MOLAND Model applications including: A baseline scenario incorporating a continuation of the present dispersed pattern of urban development and an alternative scenario with rail-oriented corridor development, under varying conditions of economic growth. An alternative scenario was also developed for the recessionary development case considering the prolonged recession in the GDR. Further explorations incorporating a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach are developed to evaluate the sustainability implications of different land development scenarios in the Dublin Region. This is assisted by focussing on the impacts of rail investments on urban form and development as raised in the international comparative literature. The findings from the CBA assessment positively indicate that containment policies-as represented by the public transport oriented development indicate benefits over the dispersed development case by reducing the negative consequences of sprawl type of developments. In contrast, dispersed development in the baseline scenario indicates costs of continuation of such development patterns exceed the benefits in the long term. This study will contribute to policy support evaluation measures relating to the integration of scenario analysis tool with the CBA approach in assisting the evaluation of new transport infrastructure proposals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Using New Mode Choice Model Nesting Structures to Address Emerging Policy Questions: A Case Study of the Pittsburgh Central Business District
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112120
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As transportation activities affect a region’s environmental quality, knowing why individuals prefer certain modes can help a region make judicious transportation investments. Using a nested logit model, this paper studies the behavior of commuters to downtown Pittsburgh who use auto, bus, light rail,
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As transportation activities affect a region’s environmental quality, knowing why individuals prefer certain modes can help a region make judicious transportation investments. Using a nested logit model, this paper studies the behavior of commuters to downtown Pittsburgh who use auto, bus, light rail, walking, and biking. Although statistical measures influence the selection of a nesting structure, another criterion for model selection is the policy questions such models inform. Hence this paper demonstrates how an alternative model structure allows planners to consider new policy questions. For example, how might a change in parking fee affect greenhouse gas emission (GHGs)? The proposed model showed that a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in parking cost reduces GHGs by 7.3%, 9% and 13.2%, respectively, through increasing carpoolers’ mode share. Because the proposed model forecasts mode choices of certain groups of travelers with higher accuracy (compared to an older model that did not consider the model selection criteria presented here), the proposed model strengthens policymakers’ ability to consider environmental impacts of interest to the region (in this case, GHGs). The paper does not suggest that one nesting structure is always preferable; rather the nesting structure must be chosen with the policy considerations in mind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Changes, Problems, and Challenges in Swedish Spatial Planning—An Analysis of Power Dynamics
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101836
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the past few decades, the Swedish spatial planning system has experienced numerous problems and challenges. In particular, there have been changes in legislation and an increased neoliberalisation of planning that gives private actors a larger influence over the planning processes in Sweden.
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During the past few decades, the Swedish spatial planning system has experienced numerous problems and challenges. In particular, there have been changes in legislation and an increased neoliberalisation of planning that gives private actors a larger influence over the planning processes in Sweden. In this article, we analyse these changes through the lenses of collaborative and neoliberal planning in order to illuminate the shifting power relations within spatial planning in Sweden. We analyse the changes of power relations from three dimensions of power based on interviews with different kinds of planners throughout Sweden. We show that power relations in the Swedish spatial planning system have shifted and that neoliberalisation and an increased focus on collaborative planning approaches have made spatial planning more complex in recent decades. This has led to a change of role for planners form actual planners to collaborators. We conclude that market-oriented planning (neoliberal planning) and collaborative planning have made it more difficult for spatial planners in Sweden to work towards sustainable urban futures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)

Review

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Open AccessReview Police Perspectives on Road Safety and Transport Politics in Germany
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101771
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Road safety is a key concern of transport governance. In the European Union, a Road Safety Programme was adopted in 2011, with the objective to reduce road deaths in Europe by 50% in the period from 2011 to 2020. Evidence suggests, however, that
[...] Read more.
Road safety is a key concern of transport governance. In the European Union, a Road Safety Programme was adopted in 2011, with the objective to reduce road deaths in Europe by 50% in the period from 2011 to 2020. Evidence suggests, however, that this goal will not be met. Against this background, this paper investigates police perspectives on traffic laws, traffic behaviour, and transport policy. Police officers working with road safety are in a unique position to evaluate and judge the efficiency of road safety policies, as they record traffic offences, fine, investigate, and witness in court. Geographically, focus is on transport policy in Germany, a country with a dense road network, high levels of car ownership, and a large number of car manufacturers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were carried out with police officers in a wide variety of positions within the traffic police in Freiburg. Thematic analysis is used to analyse content and to identify aspects that represent major areas of concern. Officers affirm that traffic laws question traffic safety, for instance with regard to speed and speed limits, or elderly drivers. Specific recommendations for changes in transport policies are made, and results are discussed in the context of their implications for road safety and the European Union’s Road Safety Programme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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Open AccessReview Subsidies in Aviation
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081295
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector’s importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to
[...] Read more.
Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector’s importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Policy)
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