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Special Issue "Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability of Culture and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Victor T. King

1 Adjunct Professor, Center for Ethnic Studies and Development, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
2 Emeritus Professor of South East Asian Studies, East Asian Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3 Professorial Research Associate, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, London WC1E 7HU, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0) 1482 342191
Fax: +44 (0) 113 343 6808
Interests: the sociology and anthropology of Southeast Asia; development studies; tourism and heritage; UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heritage tourism is fast becoming a major element in government plans to promote tourism. This is, in no small measure, a result of the work of international protection and conservation agencies, including the UNESCO World Heritage Committee (WHC), the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). Earlier concerns with mass leisure-based, sun, sea, sand, shopping and sex tourism, primarily oriented to tourists from outside Asia, have given way to a more nuanced and sustainable approach to tourism development focusing on culture and the environment, and on the increasing importance of domestic and intra-Asian tourism. This Special Issue examines the ways in which sustainability is being encouraged and managed in both cultural and natural heritage sites, and on the issues which need to be addressed in heritage tourism in order to ensure that visitor and other development pressures do not destroy the heritage resources which government and international agencies wish to protect.

Prof. Dr. Victor T. King
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heritage (cultural, natural, world)
  • tourism development
  • sustainability
  • management issues

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle How to Promote Sustainable Relationships between Heritage Conservation and Community, Based on a Survey
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 886; doi:10.3390/su8090886
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Community residents have a strong stake in a local heritage site and may be an important force in its conservation, management and development. Positive relationships between the heritage site and community residents can promote its protection. A questionnaire survey was conducted with local
[...] Read more.
Community residents have a strong stake in a local heritage site and may be an important force in its conservation, management and development. Positive relationships between the heritage site and community residents can promote its protection. A questionnaire survey was conducted with local residents of Bogda World Natural Heritage, Xinjiang, China, to assess their perceptions towards the World Natural Heritage, and their attitudes towards participation in heritage conservation. The local residents have made positive contributions to the conservation of heritage resource in the past several years. However, because of the asymmetry between responsibility for conservation and benefit sharing, the authors recommend that a “Community co-management framework” should be established to mobilize residents to participate in heritage conservation. Furthermore, participatory approaches and communication mechanisms are suggested to promote sustainable relationships between community development and heritage conservation. The empirical study can be used as an input to policy making and management for sustainable conservation, and the study contributes to the literature related to community participation at heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Sustaining Cultural and Natural Heritage in Albania
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 792; doi:10.3390/su8080792
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
PDF Full-text (8977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME), an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms) and
[...] Read more.
This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME), an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms) and procedures as well as improving the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably valorize hidden resources. The underlying approach has capitalized on existing technologies and experiences through the development of an advanced interactive multimedia map using data produced in the Ljubljana Process. Subsequently, the map will be extended by collecting more data on the Lake Ohrid Region, which has been selected as a pilot area to promote the neglected inland, relieving pressure on more famous coastal sites. A contest among schools will enrich the database, uploading multifaceted memories collected by students. The winning cultural asset will be the object of a small-scale rehabilitation project supported by a fundraising campaign through a crowdfunding platform. The centrality of people’s active participation will contribute to governance innovation by reverting to traditional top-down promotion processes and practices, in which heritage consumers represent passive recipients of ready-made offers and messages. The map platform also holds specific potential for cultural tourism purposes, avoiding mistakes in the geo-localization of sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle 2D Versus 3D: The Relevance of the Mode of Presentation for the Economic Valuation of an Alpine Landscape
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 591; doi:10.3390/su8060591
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to value the transformation of landscapes from an economic perspective, survey respondents are usually presented with pictures of various landscapes with the aim to visualize differences in their appearance. The current paper presents a classroom experiment ascertaining differences, and potential advantages
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In order to value the transformation of landscapes from an economic perspective, survey respondents are usually presented with pictures of various landscapes with the aim to visualize differences in their appearance. The current paper presents a classroom experiment ascertaining differences, and potential advantages and disadvantages, of 2D versus 3D (stereoscopic) presentations of landscape changes. The landscape to be valued was a traditional Alpine pasture in the Austrian Alps as a prominent example of natural and cultural heritage (traditional economy and specific ecology). Two alternative scenarios included, on the one hand, changes in agricultural uses, leading to natural afforestation (reforestation) and decay of existing infrastructure (e.g., hiking trails). On the other hand, significantly extended tourism infrastructure (e.g., new attractions for visitors) was presented. Two groups were presented manipulated pictures (2D/non-stereoscopic), and 3D (stereoscopic) presentations with 3D glasses, respectively. Both groups were then asked for their perception of landscape changes. It turns out that significant differences between the two groups could be detected in terms of the frequency of vacations at Alpine pastures. For instance, respondents in the 3D stereoscopic group stated a significantly higher frequency of trips. However, on the other hand, they did not state a significantly different willingness-to-pay to prevent landscape changes disadvantageous in terms of sustainability. The study results thus suggest that the mode of presentation may affect the valuation of landscape changes depending on the valuation instrument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle Cultural Attitudes as WTP Determinants: A Revised Cultural Worldview Scale
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 570; doi:10.3390/su8060570
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
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Abstract
There has been little attention paid to the systematic measurement issue of general attitudes toward human-culture relationships. This paper applied the Cultural Worldview (CW) scale that was developed by Choi et al. in 2007 (published in the Journal of Cultural Economics), and
[...] Read more.
There has been little attention paid to the systematic measurement issue of general attitudes toward human-culture relationships. This paper applied the Cultural Worldview (CW) scale that was developed by Choi et al. in 2007 (published in the Journal of Cultural Economics), and investigated its dimensionality and relationship with willingness to pay (WTP) for cultural heritage protection through a sequential integration between latent variables and valuation models. A case study of 997 Korean respondents was employed to examine conservation values of cultural heritage sites using discrete choice models. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that this scale can be used either as a single second-order factor or four correlated factors. A more parsimonious version of the CW scale with twelve items is endorsed in this paper and the results also confirm that it is valid for use with non-Western nations. The findings support a significant attitude–WTP relationship; there was a significant role of the CW scale that reveals unobserved factors in valuation models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle Tourism and Sustainability in the Evaluation of World Heritage Sites, 1980–2010
Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 261; doi:10.3390/su8030261
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, there are myriad concerns about tourism and sustainability at cultural and natural world heritage sites. Based on an analysis of 811 evaluations written between 1980 and 2010 by two official advisory bodies to the World Heritage Committee, this paper charts the
[...] Read more.
At present, there are myriad concerns about tourism and sustainability at cultural and natural world heritage sites. Based on an analysis of 811 evaluations written between 1980 and 2010 by two official advisory bodies to the World Heritage Committee, this paper charts the timing and extent to which such concerns have become central to assessing the value of heritage sites. We find that, over time, issues related to tourism and sustainability expanded considerably in quantity and variety, and recommendations for managing and developing sustainable tourism became a routine feature of site evaluations. Despite the growing prevalence of such concerns, the conceptualization of sustainable tourism and related recommendations provided by the advisory experts remain somewhat ambiguous. Furthermore, our findings reveal regional disparities in the degree to which tourism is seen as a threat to the sustainability of heritage sites and in the likelihood that a state is considered a model of sustainable tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle World Heritage Site Designation Impacts on a Historic Village: A Case Study on Residents’ Perceptions of Hahoe Village (Korea)
Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 258; doi:10.3390/su8030258
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between World Heritage Site (WHS) designation and the community sustainability of a historic village, focusing on Hahoe Village, Korea, which was inscribed in 2010. It examines residents’ perceptions of increasing tourism at Hahoe Village by adopting a questionnaire
[...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between World Heritage Site (WHS) designation and the community sustainability of a historic village, focusing on Hahoe Village, Korea, which was inscribed in 2010. It examines residents’ perceptions of increasing tourism at Hahoe Village by adopting a questionnaire and using an interview as research methods. This study examined both the positive and negative impacts that Hahoe Village’s WHS designation has had on its sustainability. Of all of the impacts examined in this research, the three most noteworthy issues are identified: (1) the acceleration of the change of the village’s industrial base and the influx of strangers; (2) the degradation of quality of life (in the physical aspects) caused by increasing tourism; and (3) the collision predicated by the tension between conserving the village’s historic environments and developing tourism. In conclusion, the WHS designation impacts on Hahoe Village, which local residents perceived, have both positive and negative aspects. WHS designation needs to be accompanied by a management plan that is more concerned about the impact from tourism after the designation. In this context, Hahoe Village must not only have a comprehensive preservation plan that balances with the demand for tourism development, but also secure the village’s community sustainability as a living place other than a tourist destination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle A Heritage Interpretation-Based Itinerary to Enhance Tourist Use of Traditional Rural Buildings
Sustainability 2016, 8(1), 47; doi:10.3390/su8010047
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer. The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as
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The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer. The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as a working method which could facilitate the understanding and social use of the heritage sites located along the itinerary. The tourist itinerary combined significant territory potential such as traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy. It included a starting point; which is a heritage site and an already well known “tourist attraction”, and several other tourist resources selected on the basis of the information derived from the analysis of the profile of the average visitor to the area. An interpretation center, which was located at the heritage site, and several interpretation media placed at each stopping point included in the itinerary supported the tourists during their trip. By promoting traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy, the tourist itinerary represents a significant opportunity for rural diversification and, therefore, can contribute to achieving sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10264-10280; doi:10.3390/su70810264
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle Perspectives on Cultural and Sustainable Rural Tourism in a Smart Region: The Case Study of Marmilla in Sardinia (Italy)
Sustainability 2015, 7(6), 6412-6434; doi:10.3390/su7066412
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is being inserted into the current debate on the topic of sustainability, as it applies to rural tourism. In particular, it addresses the need to identify strategic actions that will enhance the dissemination of cultural resources to facilitate cultural planning. Balancing
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This paper is being inserted into the current debate on the topic of sustainability, as it applies to rural tourism. In particular, it addresses the need to identify strategic actions that will enhance the dissemination of cultural resources to facilitate cultural planning. Balancing the dynamic tension that characterizes the relationship between tourism development and protection of the landscape is key to finalizing appropriate planning strategies and actions, especially in the context of marginal rural areas. In support of theoretical and methodological reflections pertinent to this relationship, this paper presents a case study of the region of Marmilla on Italy’s island of Sardinia. The absence of both a “cultural planning” philosophy and a strategic approach to systemic and sustainable rural tourism in this country has been acknowledged. This paper concludes by discussing the results that emerged during the preparation of this case study, with respect to smart, sustainable, rural tourism development, while accepting the need for compromises between the force of globalization, nature, tourism, places, and people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)

Review

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Open AccessReview Models and Approaches for Integrating Protected Areas with Their Surroundings: A Review of the Literature
Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8151-8177; doi:10.3390/su7078151
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
PDF Full-text (881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies have identified threats that originate in areas surrounding protected areas (PAs). While there have been various efforts to integrate PAs with their surroundings, considerable challenges remain. Here we summarize these efforts to date, discuss their effectiveness, and provide recommendations for future
[...] Read more.
Several studies have identified threats that originate in areas surrounding protected areas (PAs). While there have been various efforts to integrate PAs with their surroundings, considerable challenges remain. Here we summarize these efforts to date, discuss their effectiveness, and provide recommendations for future research. Based on a broad literature review of theoretical and applied approaches, we have outlined 68 models for balancing conservation and sustainable development in PAs. We comprehensively analyzed 23 of these models for integrating PAs with their surroundings. They were divided into two categories: area-oriented and process-oriented approaches. This review reveals the absolute necessity of combining these two approaches for future conservation and sustainable development of PAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
Open AccessReview Differential Radar Interferometry for Structural and Ground Deformation Monitoring: A New Tool for the Conservation and Sustainability of Cultural Heritage Sites
Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 1712-1729; doi:10.3390/su7021712
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Affected by natural and human-induced factors, cultural heritage sites and their surroundings face threats of structural instability and land displacement. Accurate and rapid identification of the key areas facing existing or potential deformation risks is essential for the conservation and sustainability of heritage
[...] Read more.
Affected by natural and human-induced factors, cultural heritage sites and their surroundings face threats of structural instability and land displacement. Accurate and rapid identification of the key areas facing existing or potential deformation risks is essential for the conservation and sustainability of heritage sites, particularly for huge archaeological regions. In recent years, the successful application of differential radar interferometry techniques for the measurement of millimeter-level terrain motions has demonstrated their potential for deformation monitoring and preventive diagnosis of cultural heritage sites. In this paper, we review the principles of advanced differential radar interferometry approaches and their applicability for structural and ground deformation monitoring over heritage sites. Then, the advantages and challenges of these approaches are analyzed, followed by a discussion on the selection of radar interferometry systems for different archaeological applications. Finally, a workflow, integrating space-borne and ground-based differential radar interferometry technologies for deformation anomaly monitoring and preventive diagnosis of cultural heritage sites, is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)

Other

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Open AccessProject Report Sustainable Digitalization of Cultural Heritage—Report on Initiatives and Projects in Brandenburg, Germany
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 891; doi:10.3390/su8090891
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While digitalization opens up new possibilities for cultural heritage and tourism it also brings new challenges. Initiatives such as “Europeana”, an internet portal for cultural heritage within the European Union, support institutions with the display of their collections. National initiatives complement these efforts.
[...] Read more.
While digitalization opens up new possibilities for cultural heritage and tourism it also brings new challenges. Initiatives such as “Europeana”, an internet portal for cultural heritage within the European Union, support institutions with the display of their collections. National initiatives complement these efforts. This report describes initiatives and projects for generating and sustaining digital cultural heritage resources in the German state of Brandenburg. With the cultural heritage distributed throughout the state and managed by hundreds of institutions, the task of digitalization is a common challenge for all of these institutions. Digitalization and digital sustainability is limited by shortcomings in areas of human resources, knowledge and IT infrastructure. In light of these limitations, the cultural heritage community addresses challenges with an interdisciplinary approach. It is based on a collaborative model with four levels: (1) a statewide strategy of an interdisciplinary task force; (2) cooperative projects; (3) cooperative IT infrastructure; and (4) an overall coordination. The priorities are: (1) creating and displaying digital content; (2) establishing best practices and workflows; (3) developing cooperative infrastructures for sustainment. Since 2012, several projects have been implemented based on that collaborative model. More than 50 participating institutions benefited from cooperative planning, managing, digitizing and digital presentation. With regard to the third priority, the task force’s next step is finding solutions for digital preservation. Considering the lack of funding and resources in the cultural heritage sector, options for creating and sustaining digital resources are limited. Digital cultural heritage requires interdisciplinary thinking, cooperative initiatives, reliable IT infrastructures and additional funding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
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