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Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8151-8177; doi:10.3390/su7078151

Models and Approaches for Integrating Protected Areas with Their Surroundings: A Review of the Literature

1
Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400 715, China
2
Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo 648, Chiba 271-8510, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Victor T. King
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Cultural and Natural Heritage)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [881 KB, uploaded 24 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Several studies have identified threats that originate in areas surrounding protected areas (PAs). While there have been various efforts to integrate PAs with their surroundings, considerable challenges remain. Here we summarize these efforts to date, discuss their effectiveness, and provide recommendations for future research. Based on a broad literature review of theoretical and applied approaches, we have outlined 68 models for balancing conservation and sustainable development in PAs. We comprehensively analyzed 23 of these models for integrating PAs with their surroundings. They were divided into two categories: area-oriented and process-oriented approaches. This review reveals the absolute necessity of combining these two approaches for future conservation and sustainable development of PAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: protected areas (PAs); PA surroundings; models; area-oriented approach; process-oriented approach; conservation; sustainable development protected areas (PAs); PA surroundings; models; area-oriented approach; process-oriented approach; conservation; sustainable development
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Du, W.; Penabaz-Wiley, S.M.; Njeru, A.M.; Kinoshita, I. Models and Approaches for Integrating Protected Areas with Their Surroundings: A Review of the Literature. Sustainability 2015, 7, 8151-8177.

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