E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Urban Water Management"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manfred Kleidorfer

Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 13, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +43-512-507-62134
Interests: urban water management; modeling; systems analysis; sustainability; climate change adaptation; rehabilitation of aging infrastructure
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Robert Sitzenfrei

Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 13, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +43-512-507-62195
Interests: urban water management; integrated; optimization; water distribution system analysis; urban drainage modelling; water and energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The supply of urban areas with clean potable water, and the disposal of wastewater and stormwater, are important topics of urban water management. The functioning of the systems is important for human health and safety, preservation of the natural environment and economic development.

Urban water management is experiencing severe changes in its fundamental concepts. It is moving away from pure ‘engineering measures’ towards more sustainable, eco-friendly solutions. Examples are stormwater retention, harvesting and use instead of drainage; improvements of the urban water cycle; attempts to reduce resource consumption, energy, (micro)pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions; nutrient recovery or lifecycle considerations of new infrastructure assets. The motivation might be different in different parts of the world. For example, rapid urbanization or climate change might increase the flood risk or lead to water scarcity (or both) or a changed understanding of the urban environment might lead to a water-centric urban design for the city of the future. Consequently, this Special Issue addresses the topic of sustainable urban water management in its different aspects and invites publications on the following (non-exhaustive list) topics

  • Stormwater management (blue-green infrastructure, low impact development, water sensitive urban design) and its contribution to sustainable urban water management;

  • Understanding and improving the urban water cycle and the water balance;

  • Preservation of water resources for drinking water supply;

  • Greenhouse gas emissions from urban water systems;

  • Energy efficiency in urban water management;

  • Nutrient recovery (from waste to resources);

  • Lifecycle considerations;

  • The precautionary principle as design rule.

Prof. Dr. Manfred Kleidorfer
Prof. Dr. Robert Sitzenfrei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainability

  • stormwater management

  • green infrastructure

  • urban water cycle

  • water quality

  • water resources

  • drainage systems

  • energy and resource efficiency

Published Papers (12 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Green Infrastructure through Citizen Stormwater Management: Policy Instruments, Participation and Engagement
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062099
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As in other industrialized countries, many urban water social-ecological systems in the United States are characterized by frequent discharges of contaminated runoff, catastrophic flooding, and near-complete severance of the hydrologic cycle. Recent advancements in stormwater best management practices aim to push urban water
[...] Read more.
As in other industrialized countries, many urban water social-ecological systems in the United States are characterized by frequent discharges of contaminated runoff, catastrophic flooding, and near-complete severance of the hydrologic cycle. Recent advancements in stormwater best management practices aim to push urban water social-ecological systems into a more sustainable regime that reconnects the hydrologic cycle and utilizes ecosystem services, such as infiltration and evapotranspiration, to improve the quality of urban and suburban water bodies. Collectively, these approaches are termed green infrastructure. As a decentralized approach, green infrastructure requires implementation on, as well as access to, property throughout a watershed, which poses particular governance challenges for watersheds where most land is held privately. We argue that green infrastructure on private property has a strong potential for creating a more sustainable regime through Citizen Stormwater Management, a participatory form of governance with strong citizen influence and engagement. We develop a classification scheme to assess policy instruments’ degree of government intervention, citizen participation, and engagement. The paper explores how various policy instruments encourage Citizen Stormwater Management across the United States on both public and private property. We then conduct a textual analysis of ten years of publicly available data from Onondaga County, New York (USA) to assess the implementation of applicable policy instruments. Findings indicate that incentive-based (carrots) along with outreach (sermon) policies can play an important role when regulatory instruments (sticks) are lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle A Study on the Development and Application of Spatial-TDR Sensor for the Management of Groundwater at Riverside
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041213
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (29678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For sustainable use of water and land, efficient management of river water and groundwater at riverside is required for development. For this purpose, both the groundwater as well as the unsaturated areas should be measured and managed. However, existing point-type sensors have physical
[...] Read more.
For sustainable use of water and land, efficient management of river water and groundwater at riverside is required for development. For this purpose, both the groundwater as well as the unsaturated areas should be measured and managed. However, existing point-type sensors have physical limitations. In this study, we developed a spatial-TDR (Time-Domain reflectometer) sensor and calibration algorithm for efficient management of riverside groundwater and conducted laboratory and field experiments on whether groundwater level and the unsaturated area can be measured. The rod-type probe shown in ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) D 6780-05 was modified into a steel wire-type sensing line so that it could be penetrated into the boring hole. The developed sensing line with steel wire is superior in transport and construction to make observations on the groundwater level, but it requires a separate filtering and calibration procedure because it contains a relatively large amount of noise. The raw data of the electric waveform is filtered by applying the moving-average method and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The calibration equation for the voltage of electric pulse and degree of saturation of soil calculated in laboratory experiments can be used to calculate the groundwater level and the unsaturated area of the real embankment. The spatial-TDR sensor developed in this study can measure both the groundwater level and the unsaturated area by improving the physical limit of the existing point-TDR sensor of probe-type. Therefore, it can greatly help efficient management of groundwater at riverside. It is necessary to put them into practical use through continuous improvement and experimental verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Systematic Literature Mining of Sponge City: Trends, Foci and Challenges Standing Ahead
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041182
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
PDF Full-text (3655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sponge City research has been attracting extensive attention both in practical and theoretical research field, as the increased threat of flood risk and environmental safety due to urbanization. Varies names of Sponge City prevalent in different countries, which leads to disconnection of literature
[...] Read more.
Sponge City research has been attracting extensive attention both in practical and theoretical research field, as the increased threat of flood risk and environmental safety due to urbanization. Varies names of Sponge City prevalent in different countries, which leads to disconnection of literature in the same field of Sponge City. In this paper, a systematic literature mining of Sponge City is presented. A literature analysis system is created, which includes literature export from Web of Sciences and systematic analysis via NoteExpress and CiteSpace. Based on the final document storage which contains 962 articles, general trends are identified. Literature is classified into 9 theme types. Research foci of Sponge City are detected by citation and keywords burst detection. Further, some future research directions of Sponge City are anticipated, including trans-disciplinary approaches, a comprehensive design framework, application of information technology, and case studies of Sponge City in more parts of the world. The significance of this paper lies in summarizing past research, identifying research types, foci and anticipating some future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Determination of Potable Cold Water Consumption in German Hospitals
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040932
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hospital’s water installations are critical for its function, but the environmental cost is high. This study quantifies the mean potable cold water consumption (PCWC) in 19 hospitals belonging to the German Public Health System. The hospital floor area ranges from 3000 to
[...] Read more.
A hospital’s water installations are critical for its function, but the environmental cost is high. This study quantifies the mean potable cold water consumption (PCWC) in 19 hospitals belonging to the German Public Health System. The hospital floor area ranges from 3000 to 151,000 m2 and the number of beds from 45 to 1003 beds. To this end, 60 Eco-Management and Audit Scheme statements were analyzed corresponding to the period 2005–2015 in accordance with their geographic location, heating-degree-days per year, cold-degree-days per year, hospital category depending on the number of beds, floor area, and number of workers. It was found that PCWC is greater in hospitals located in areas with greater heating-degree-days per year. The potential mean annual savings estimated were 8,600,000 m3 of water equivalent to 15,000,000 euros, 4000 MWh energy, and 30,000 tons of CO2 emissions. It was concluded that, to determine the mean annual water consumption, it is preferable to use the number of beds as reference indicator, and the value of the consumption as reference indicator was proposed as 103 m3 per bed per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030750
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS) constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water
[...] Read more.
Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS) constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Toward Sustainable Management: 2D Modelling of a Self-Cleaning System to Improve Geometry in Front of the Flushing Gate
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030745
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to show how numerical modelling based on 2D SWE can be used to analyze the cleaning effectiveness of flushing waves in storm tanks. The case study under consideration is an existing storm tank located in Badalona, a municipality of Barcelona,
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to show how numerical modelling based on 2D SWE can be used to analyze the cleaning effectiveness of flushing waves in storm tanks. The case study under consideration is an existing storm tank located in Badalona, a municipality of Barcelona, Spain. Storm tank cleaning systems are critical features that must be carefully addressed. If not appropriately addressed, operation and maintenance work costs can drastically increase. There are numerous currently available technologies for cleaning storage tanks. However, no specific guide on this field has been identified. References are provided by the manufacturers through their commercial catalogues. Generally, this information is not based on experimental or numerical experiences or results have not been published in the literature of scientific papers. In this study, a public domain software (IBER) was used to develop 2D hydraulic analysis of the selected tank. The results obtained show how the phenomenon of recirculation is acting in some areas of the lane. This implies a dissipation of energy, thus causing difficulties in terms of cleaning procedures. Furthermore, two new scenarios have been tested to determine how a different lane width might affect hydrodynamic behavior. A newly suggested geometry for the existing lane of the tank is proposed by using the numerical modeling software. The proposed geometry in the current pilot tank achieves higher velocities and avoids recirculation areas. The results demonstrate that numerical modelling of these types of processes is possible with the computer models available (commercial codes) and can be used to optimize cleaning system design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modeling the Effects of Introducing Low Impact Development in a Tropical City: A Case Study from Joinville, Brazil
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030728
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In tropical countries like Brazil, fast and uncontrolled urbanization, together with high rainfall intensities, makes flooding a frequent event. The implementation of decentralized stormwater controls is a promising strategy aiming to reduce surface runoff and pollution through retention, infiltration, filtration, and evapotranspiration of
[...] Read more.
In tropical countries like Brazil, fast and uncontrolled urbanization, together with high rainfall intensities, makes flooding a frequent event. The implementation of decentralized stormwater controls is a promising strategy aiming to reduce surface runoff and pollution through retention, infiltration, filtration, and evapotranspiration of stormwater. Although the application of such controls has increased in the past years in developed countries, they are still not a common approach in developing countries, such as Brazil. In this paper we evaluate to what extend different low impact development (LID) techniques are able to reduce the flood risk in an area of high rainfall intensities in a coastal region of South Brazil. Feasible scenarios of placing LID units throughout the catchment were developed, analyzed with a hydrodynamic solver, and compared against the baseline scenario to evaluate the potential of flood mitigation. Results show that the performance improvements of different LID scenarios are highly dependent on the rainfall events. On average, a total flood volume reduction between 30% and 75% could be achieved for seven LID scenarios. For this case study the best results were obtained when using a combination of central and decentral LID units, namely detention ponds, infiltration trenches, and rain gardens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Conceptual Urban Water Balance Model for Water Policy Testing: An Approach for Large Scale Investigation
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030716
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
PDF Full-text (10235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban water management will face various challenges in the future. Growing population in cities, changing climatic conditions and uncertain availability of water resources necessitate forward-looking water policy strategies. In this paper, we introduce a new water balance model to evaluate urban water strategies
[...] Read more.
Urban water management will face various challenges in the future. Growing population in cities, changing climatic conditions and uncertain availability of water resources necessitate forward-looking water policy strategies. In this paper, we introduce a new water balance model to evaluate urban water strategies at a city scale. The aim is to evaluate decentralised water management measures within a large-scale investigation and to reduce external potable water demand. The upscaling process of local information (water demand, areal data) to a conceptual model approach is described. The modelling approach requires simplification of detailed processes to enable the execution with limited computing capacity. The model was applied to Greater Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, a highly sprawled city with nearly four million inhabitants. Scenario analysis demonstrated the impact of using different water resources of different quality classes, the extensive implementation of water saving appliances and decentralised water storage strategies on the city’s water balance. Results indicate a potential reduction of potable water demand of up to 25% with a conservative rainwater reuse and, even 60% with widespread implementation of rain- and greywater recycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even small systems implemented at a local level can have noticeable effects when operated as clustered schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigating the Influence of Various Stormwater Runoff Control Facilities on Runoff Control Efficiency in a Small Catchment Area
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020407
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urbanization causes an increase in the flood discharge because of the infiltration capacity. Furthermore, extreme precipitation events have been an increasing concern for many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different outflow control facilities on runoff reduction in a
[...] Read more.
Urbanization causes an increase in the flood discharge because of the infiltration capacity. Furthermore, extreme precipitation events have been an increasing concern for many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different outflow control facilities on runoff reduction in a small watershed. We focused on the soil-improvement technology and rainwater tanks as outflow control facilities and conducted a runoff calculation using a rainfall event of a magnitude that is likely to occur once in a hundred years. The calculation showed that the soil-improvement technology reduced runoff during long-term continuous rainfall, whereas in a concentrated short-term rainfall event, a significant difference in the runoff reduction effect between rainfall tanks of various volumes was observed. Since effective countermeasures for runoff reduction differ depending on the rainfall distribution pattern, we suggested both facilities for storing initial rainfall and initiating countermeasures for penetration improvement over the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Interaction of City and Water in the Yangtze River Delta, a Natural/Artificial Comparison with Euro Delta
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010109
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
PDF Full-text (13639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metropolitan deltas have much in common because of similar urban water management conditions. This paper will introduce the interaction of urban development and water management in and around the Yangtze River Delta from a historical perspective. It will compare the Yangtze River Delta
[...] Read more.
Metropolitan deltas have much in common because of similar urban water management conditions. This paper will introduce the interaction of urban development and water management in and around the Yangtze River Delta from a historical perspective. It will compare the Yangtze River Delta with a short overview of the historic water urban developments in the Euro Delta. This paper will explore the importance of the variations of both delta areas, especially regarding the similarities and differences in urban morphology and delta governance. In conclusion, we will outline new challenges of resilient urban water management in both delta areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101795
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P) concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in
[...] Read more.
Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P) concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume), crushed limestone (20% of volume), and sand (45% of volume), and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL) guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Characteristic Rain Events: A Methodology for Improving the Amenity Value of Stormwater Control Measures
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101793
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
PDF Full-text (3682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Local management of rainwater using stormwater control measures (SCMs) is gaining increased attention as a sustainable alternative and supplement to traditional sewer systems. Besides offering added utility values, many SCMs also offer a great potential for added amenity values. One way of achieving
[...] Read more.
Local management of rainwater using stormwater control measures (SCMs) is gaining increased attention as a sustainable alternative and supplement to traditional sewer systems. Besides offering added utility values, many SCMs also offer a great potential for added amenity values. One way of achieving amenity value is to stage the rainwater and thus bring it to the attention of the public. We present here a methodology for creating a selection of rain events that can help bridge between engineering and landscape architecture when dealing with staging of rainwater. The methodology uses quantitative and statistical methods to select Characteristic Rain Events (CREs) for a range of frequent return periods: weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, and a single rarer event occurring only every 1–10 years. The methodology for selecting CREs is flexible and can be adjusted to any climatic settings; here we show its use for Danish conditions. We illustrate with a case study how CREs can be used in combination with a simple hydrological model to visualize where, how deep and for how long water is visible in a landscape designed to manage rainwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top