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Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030716

Conceptual Urban Water Balance Model for Water Policy Testing: An Approach for Large Scale Investigation

1
Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 13, Innsbruck 6020, Austria
2
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Technology (Eawag), Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
3
Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
4
Monash Infrastructure Research Institute, Civil Engineering Department, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
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Abstract

Urban water management will face various challenges in the future. Growing population in cities, changing climatic conditions and uncertain availability of water resources necessitate forward-looking water policy strategies. In this paper, we introduce a new water balance model to evaluate urban water strategies at a city scale. The aim is to evaluate decentralised water management measures within a large-scale investigation and to reduce external potable water demand. The upscaling process of local information (water demand, areal data) to a conceptual model approach is described. The modelling approach requires simplification of detailed processes to enable the execution with limited computing capacity. The model was applied to Greater Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, a highly sprawled city with nearly four million inhabitants. Scenario analysis demonstrated the impact of using different water resources of different quality classes, the extensive implementation of water saving appliances and decentralised water storage strategies on the city’s water balance. Results indicate a potential reduction of potable water demand of up to 25% with a conservative rainwater reuse and, even 60% with widespread implementation of rain- and greywater recycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even small systems implemented at a local level can have noticeable effects when operated as clustered schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: alternative water resources; water quality; decentralised storages; water recycling and reuse; upscaling local information; potable water demand reduction alternative water resources; water quality; decentralised storages; water recycling and reuse; upscaling local information; potable water demand reduction
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Zeisl, P.; Mair, M.; Kastlunger, U.; Bach, P.M.; Rauch, W.; Sitzenfrei, R.; Kleidorfer, M. Conceptual Urban Water Balance Model for Water Policy Testing: An Approach for Large Scale Investigation. Sustainability 2018, 10, 716.

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