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Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology)
Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources , University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran
Laboratoire Interfaces Composants et Microélectronique, LICM/CLOES/SUPELEC, Université de METZ 2, Rue E. Belin, 57070 METZ, France
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University, AgCenter, 149 E.B. Doran Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2009; in revised form: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 14 July 2009 / Published: 30 July 2009
Abstract: Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses”) have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.
Keywords: meat; spoilage; electronic nose; sensor; quality control; machine olfaction; neural network
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Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M.; Mohtasebi, S.S.; Siadat, M.; Balasubramanian, S. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology). Sensors 2009, 9, 6058-6083.
Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti M, Mohtasebi SS, Siadat M, Balasubramanian S. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology). Sensors. 2009; 9(8):6058-6083.
Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Siadat, Maryam; Balasubramanian, Sundar. 2009. "Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology)." Sensors 9, no. 8: 6058-6083.