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Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing
Penn State University, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Energy Institute and The Penn State Institutes of Energy and The Environment (PSIEE), 203 Hosler Bldg. University Park, PA 16802, USA
The National Center for Space Exploration Research (NCSER), 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2009; in revised form: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 29 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Abstract: A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.
Keywords: metal oxide; gas sensor; nanostructure; integration; nanorods; catalyst; gas detector; gas analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Vander Wal, R.L.; Berger, G.M.; Kulis, M.J.; Hunter, G.W.; Xu, J.C.; Evans, L. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing. Sensors 2009, 9, 7866-7902.
Vander Wal RL, Berger GM, Kulis MJ, Hunter GW, Xu JC, Evans L. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing. Sensors. 2009; 9(10):7866-7902.
Vander Wal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura. 2009. "Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing." Sensors 9, no. 10: 7866-7902.