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Special Issue "Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Paolo Scopece

Nadir S.r.l., Venice Area, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electroanalytical chemistry, nanomaterials, surface chemistry, plasma chemistry
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ligia Moretto

Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Scientific Campus; Via Torino 155, 30172 Venice , Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: electrochemical sensors and biosensors; electroanalysis; modified electrodes; environmental electroanalysis; nanoelectrodes
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paolo Ugo

Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Fax: +39 041 234 8594
Interests: environmental electroanalysis; ion-exchange voltammetry; nanoelectrochemistry; electrochemical immunosensors; modified electrodes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, a great revival in the use of carbon electrodes for analytical and sensing purposes was observed in relation to the variety of novel carbon forms accessible to analytical electrochemists. They include advanced carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, as well as other carbon forms available both as bulk material or ultrathin- or nano-layers, carbon black, doped diamond, etc. These materials present remarkable electroanalytical properties both for the direct detection of electroactive species as well as being functionally tailored to develop sensitive and specific electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The goal of this Special Issue is to set the state-of-the-art on recent advances in this field with contributions which can include original research papers, technical communications and/or short notes, reviews and mini-reviews.

Dr. Paolo Scopece
Prof. Dr. Ligia Maria Moretto
Prof. Dr. Paolo Ugo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Graphite
  • Glassy carbon
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Graphene
  • Carbon paste electrodes
  • Boron doped diamond
  • Carbon nanofibers
  • Carbon black
  • Pyrolyzed photoresist carbon electrodes
  • Screen printed electrodes

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Nitrogen-Rich Polyacrylonitrile-Based Graphitic Carbons for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2407; doi:10.3390/s17102407 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Catalytic substrate, which is devoid of expensive noble metals and enzymes for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduction reactions can be obtained via nitrogen doping of graphite. Here, we report a facile fabrication method for obtaining such nitrogen doped graphitized carbon
[...] Read more.
Catalytic substrate, which is devoid of expensive noble metals and enzymes for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduction reactions can be obtained via nitrogen doping of graphite. Here, we report a facile fabrication method for obtaining such nitrogen doped graphitized carbon using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mats and its use in H2O2 sensing. A high degree of graphitization was obtained with a mechanical treatment of the PAN fibers embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNT) prior to the pyrolysis step. The electrochemical testing showed a limit of detection (LOD) 0.609 µM and sensitivity of 2.54 µA cm−2 mM−1. The promising sensing performance of the developed carbon electrodes can be attributed to the presence of high content of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens in the pyrolytic carbons, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reported results suggest that, despite their simple fabrication, the hydrogen peroxide sensors developed from pyrolytic carbon nanofibers are comparable with their sophisticated nitrogen-doped graphene counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2267; doi:10.3390/s17102267
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
PDF Full-text (6205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as
[...] Read more.
Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for Toluene Sensing
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2245; doi:10.3390/s17102245
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Graphene-based composites have gained great attention in the field of gas sensor fabrication due to their higher surface area with additional functional groups. Decorating one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanomaterials on graphene also show potential benefits in gas sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the one-pot
[...] Read more.
Graphene-based composites have gained great attention in the field of gas sensor fabrication due to their higher surface area with additional functional groups. Decorating one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanomaterials on graphene also show potential benefits in gas sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the one-pot and low cost synthesis of W18O49 NWs/rGO composites with different amount of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) which show excellent gas-sensing properties towards toluene and strong dependence on their chemical composition. As compared to pure W18O49 NWs, an improved gas sensing response (2.8 times higher) was achieved in case of W18O49 NWs composite with 0.5 wt. % rGO. Promisingly, this strategy can be extended to prepare other nanowire based composites with excellent gas-sensing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave Deposition of Palladium Catalysts on Graphite Spheres and Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets for Electrochemical Glucose Sensing
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2163; doi:10.3390/s17102163
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
This work outlines a synthetic strategy inducing the microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium (Pd) nanocrystals on a graphite sphere (GS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supports, forming the Pd catalysts for non-enzymatic glucose oxidation reaction (GOR). The pulse microwave approach takes a short period
[...] Read more.
This work outlines a synthetic strategy inducing the microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium (Pd) nanocrystals on a graphite sphere (GS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supports, forming the Pd catalysts for non-enzymatic glucose oxidation reaction (GOR). The pulse microwave approach takes a short period (i.e., 10 min) to fast synthesize Pd nanocrystals onto a carbon support at 150 °C. The selection of carbon support plays a crucial role in affecting Pd particle size and dispersion uniformity. The robust design of Pd-rGO catalyst electrode displays an enhanced electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity toward GOR. The enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the synergetic effect that combines small crystalline size and two-dimensional conductive support, imparting high accessibility to non-enzymatic GOR. The rGO sheets serve as a conductive scaffold, capable of fast conducting electron. The linear plot of current response versus glucose concentration exhibits good correlations within the range of 1–12 mM. The sensitivity of the Pd-rGO catalyst is significantly enhanced by 3.7 times, as compared to the Pd-GS catalyst. Accordingly, the Pd-rGO catalyst electrode can be considered as a potential candidate for non-enzymatic glucose biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle A Third Generation Glucose Biosensor Based on Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Immobilized on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Decorated with Electrodeposited Gold Nanoparticles: Characterization and Application in Human Saliva
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1912; doi:10.3390/s17081912
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between a cellobiose dehydrogenase mutant from Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH C291Y) and a novel glassy carbon (GC)-modified electrode, obtained by direct electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was realized. The electrode was further modified with a mixed self-assembled monolayer of
[...] Read more.
Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between a cellobiose dehydrogenase mutant from Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH C291Y) and a novel glassy carbon (GC)-modified electrode, obtained by direct electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was realized. The electrode was further modified with a mixed self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-APh) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), by using glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. The CtCDH C291Y/GA/4-APh,4-MBA/AuNPs/GC platform showed an apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of 19.4 ± 0.6 s−1, with an enhanced theoretical and real enzyme surface coverage (Γtheor and Γreal) of 5287 ± 152 pmol cm−2 and 27 ± 2 pmol cm−2, respectively. The modified electrode was successively used as glucose biosensor exhibiting a detection limit of 6.2 μM, an extended linear range from 0.02 to 30 mM, a sensitivity of 3.1 ± 0.1 μA mM−1 cm−2 (R2 = 0.995), excellent stability and good selectivity. These performances compared favourably with other glucose biosensors reported in the literature. Finally, the biosensor was tested to quantify the glucose content in human saliva samples with successful results in terms of both recovery and correlation with glucose blood levels, allowing further considerations on the development of non-invasive glucose monitoring devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Guanine and Adenine Using an Aminated Reduced Graphene Oxide Functional Membrane-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1652; doi:10.3390/s17071652
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
A new electrochemical sensor based on a Nafion, aminated reduced graphene oxide and chitosan functional membrane-modified glassy carbon electrode was proposed for the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical methods were utilized for
[...] Read more.
A new electrochemical sensor based on a Nafion, aminated reduced graphene oxide and chitosan functional membrane-modified glassy carbon electrode was proposed for the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine. Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical methods were utilized for the additional characterization of the membrane materials. The prepared electrode was utilized for the detection of guanine (G) and adenine (A). The anodic peak currents to G and A were linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 120 μM and 0.2 to 110 μM, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 0.1 μM and 0.2 μM, respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode could also be used to determine G and A in calf thymus DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Quinoline in G. boninense-Infected Plants Using Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Field Study
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1538; doi:10.3390/s17071538
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and chitosan nanoparticles (CTSNPs) were anchored on a screen-printed electrode to fabricate a multi-walled structure for the detection of quinoline. The surface morphology of the nanocomposites and the modified electrode was examined by an ultra-high
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and chitosan nanoparticles (CTSNPs) were anchored on a screen-printed electrode to fabricate a multi-walled structure for the detection of quinoline. The surface morphology of the nanocomposites and the modified electrode was examined by an ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of specific functional groups on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) were used to monitor the layer-by-layer assembly of ultra-thin films of nanocomposites on the surface of the electrode and other electrochemical characterizations. Under optimized conditions, the novel sensor displayed outstanding electrochemical reactivity towards the electro-oxidation of quinoline. The linear range was fixed between 0.0004 and 1.0 μM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.75 nM. The fabricated electrode exhibited high stability with excellent sensitivity and selectivity, specifically attributable to the salient characteristics of AuNPs, CTSNPs, and MWCNTs and the synergistic inter-relationship between them. The newly developed electrode was tested in the field. The Ipa increased with an increase in the amount of quinoline solution added, and the peak potential deviated minimally, depicting the real capability of the newly fabricated electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle Flexible, Low-Cost Sensor Based on Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor for Organo-Phosphate Detection
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1147; doi:10.3390/s17051147
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a
[...] Read more.
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress. The enzymatic activity was inhibited by more than 70% when the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer was spiked with 5 mg/mL malathion (an organophosphate) solution. The biosensor was successfully challenged with tap water and strawberry juice, demonstrating its usefulness as an analytical tool for organophosphate detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle The Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes Using a Two-Step Electroless Plating/Chemical Vapor Deposition Process
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 725; doi:10.3390/s17040725
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) has been extensively applied in the biosensor and chemical sensor domains. In order to improve the electrochemical activity and sensitivity of the CFME, a new CFME modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), denoted as CNTs/CFME, was fabricated and investigated. First,
[...] Read more.
Carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) has been extensively applied in the biosensor and chemical sensor domains. In order to improve the electrochemical activity and sensitivity of the CFME, a new CFME modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), denoted as CNTs/CFME, was fabricated and investigated. First, carbon fiber (CF) monofilaments grafted with CNTs (simplified as CNTs/CFs) were fabricated in two key steps: (i) nickel electroless plating, followed by (ii) chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Second, a single CNTs/CF monofilament was selected and encapsulated into a CNTs/CFME with a simple packaging method. The morphologies of as-prepared CNTs/CFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CNTs/CFMEs were measured in potassium ferrocyanide solution (K4Fe(CN)6), by using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) and a chronoamperometry method. Compared with a bare CFME, a CNTs/CFME showed better CV curves with a higher distinguishable redox peak and response current; the higher the CNT content was, the better the CV curves were. Because the as-grown CNTs significantly enhanced the effective electrode area of CNTs/CFME, the contact area between the electrode and reactant was enlarged, further increasing the electrocatalytic active site density. Furthermore, the modified microelectrode displayed almost the same electrochemical behavior after 104 days, exhibiting remarkable stability and outstanding reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Trends on Electrochemical Sensors Based on Ordered Mesoporous Carbon
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1863; doi:10.3390/s17081863
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The past decade has seen an increasing number of extensive studies devoted to the exploitation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials in electrochemistry, notably in the fields of energy and sensing. The present review summarizes the recent achievements made in field of electroanalysis
[...] Read more.
The past decade has seen an increasing number of extensive studies devoted to the exploitation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials in electrochemistry, notably in the fields of energy and sensing. The present review summarizes the recent achievements made in field of electroanalysis using electrodes modified with such nanomaterials. On the basis of comprehensive tables, the interest in OMC for designing electrochemical sensors is illustrated through the various applications developed to date. They include voltammetric detection after preconcentration, electrocatalysis (intrinsically due to OMC or based on suitable catalysts deposited onto OMC), electrochemical biosensors, as well as electrochemiluminescence and potentiometric sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessTechnical Note Flexible Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1638; doi:10.3390/s17071638
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
PDF Full-text (13451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Detecting the bio-potential changes of plants would be useful for monitoring their growth and health in the field. A sensitive plant monitoring system with flexible boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes prepared from BDD powder and resin (Nafion or Vylon-KE1830) was investigated. The properties of
[...] Read more.
Detecting the bio-potential changes of plants would be useful for monitoring their growth and health in the field. A sensitive plant monitoring system with flexible boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes prepared from BDD powder and resin (Nafion or Vylon-KE1830) was investigated. The properties of the electrodes were compared with those of small BDD plate-type electrodes by monitoring the bioelectric potentials of potted Aloe and hybrid species in the genus Opuntia. While flexible BDD electrodes have wide potential windows, their cyclic voltammograms are different from those of the BDD plate. Further, the potential gap between a pair of electrodes attached to the plants changes as the plants are stimulated artificially with a finger touch, suggesting that the bioelectric potentials in the plant also changed, manifesting as changes in the potential gap between the electrodes. The BDD electrodes were assessed for their response reproducibility to a finger stimulus for 30 days. It was concluded that the plant monitoring system worked well with flexible BDD electrodes. Further, the electrodes were stable, and as reliable as the BDD plate electrodes in this study. Thus, a flexible and inexpensive BDD electrode system was successfully fabricated for monitoring the bioelectric potential changes in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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