Special Issue "Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paolo Ugo

Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy
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Fax: +39 041 234 8594
Interests: environmental electroanalysis; ion-exchange voltammetry; nanoelectrochemistry; electrochemical immunosensors; modified electrodes
Guest Editor
Dr. Michael Ongaro

Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123, Venice, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 041 234 8695
Fax: +39 041 234 8594
Interests: sensors; micro- and nanoelectrode arrays; semiconductors; photoelectrochemistry; bipolar electrochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The demand for reliable chemical information on the state of our environment is continuously increasing, such an issue being of major concern to a variety of stakeholders ranging from the private citizen, who requests quick and reliable answers on the quality of our environment and foods, to regulators and controllers who must set and enforce limits and rules, through to industries which are required to produce safe products, using safe processes; all of which in order to avoid risks to human health and the environment. Obtaining chemical information on the state of our environment and food quality requires the availability of reliable and efficient analytical tools. Electrochemical sensors present unique characteristics which make them the optimal candidates to reach this objective. They take advantage of the immediate transduction of chemical information into an electrical signal so that they can be used both directly in the field and for decentralized monitoring. Moreover, they are sensitive and selective, can be used even in colored and turbid samples, and furnish information also on the speciation state of the analyte. The goal of this Special Issue of Chemosensors is to present the most recent advances in the field of electrochemical sensors and biosensors for environmental and food analysis, which have been achieved in recent years as a consequence of the most recent progress in the bio-and nanotechnology and functional materials field.

Prof. Dr. Paolo Ugo
Dr. Michael Ongaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • environment
  • food
  • pollutants
  • analysis
  • electrochemistry
  • sensors
  • biosensors
  • modified electrodes
  • voltammetry
  • amperometry
  • potentiometry

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) Sensor Based on Ru(bpy)32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 178-189; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020178
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on Ru(bpy)32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP) covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and
[...] Read more.
A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on Ru(bpy)32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP) covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy)32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Simple and Rapid Determination of Ethanol Content in Beer Using an Amperometric Biosensor
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 169-177; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020169
Received: 21 January 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An alcohol dehydrogenase-based biosensor was prepared and tested for its use to determine ethanol in beer. The biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by rhodium dioxide and immobilized with a biocatalytic layer containing the enzyme. Function of the enzyme
[...] Read more.
An alcohol dehydrogenase-based biosensor was prepared and tested for its use to determine ethanol in beer. The biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by rhodium dioxide and immobilized with a biocatalytic layer containing the enzyme. Function of the enzyme biosensor was tested in model ethanol samples, in which it showed a linear range of 15–120 g∙L−1 with a detection limit of 3.3 g∙L−1 (established as 3σ) and response time of 19 s. In a potential window from –0.2 to +0.45 V, interferences of both ascorbic and uric acids were negligible. Several types of marketed beers of Czech provenance were selected and subjected to measurements under optimized conditions but without any pretreatment of real samples. When compared with the reference method (gas chromatography), the results were in quite good agreement for beers of the pale lager type but higher contents of ethanol were indicated in the samples of dark lager beers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Pyrolyzed Photoresist Carbon Electrodes for Trace Electroanalysis of Nickel(II)
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 157-168; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020157
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel pyrolyzed photoresist carbon electrodes for electroanalytical applications have been produced by photolithographic technology followed by pyrolysis of the photoresist. A study of the determination of Ni(II) dimethylglyoximate (Ni-DMG) through adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry at an in situ bismuth-modified pyrolyzed photoresist electrode (Bi-PPCE)
[...] Read more.
Novel pyrolyzed photoresist carbon electrodes for electroanalytical applications have been produced by photolithographic technology followed by pyrolysis of the photoresist. A study of the determination of Ni(II) dimethylglyoximate (Ni-DMG) through adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry at an in situ bismuth-modified pyrolyzed photoresist electrode (Bi-PPCE) is reported. The experimental conditions for the deposition of a bismuth film on the PPCE were optimized. The Bi-PPCE allowed the analysis of trace concentrations of Ni(II), even in the presence of Co(II), which is the main interference in this analysis, with cathodic stripping square wave voltammograms characterized by well-separated stripping peaks. The calculated limits of detection (LOD) were 20 ng∙L−1 for Ni(II) alone and 500 ng∙L−1 in the presence of Co(II). The optimized method was finally applied to the analysis of certified spring water (NIST1640a). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Arrays of TiO2 Nanowires as Photoelectrochemical Sensors for Hydrazine Detection
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 146-156; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020146
Received: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrodes based on arrays of TiO2 nanowires were prepared by template sol-gel synthesis with the goal of developing a hydrazine photoelectrochemical sensor. Experimental conditions were chosen so that the gelation reaction occurred inside the nanopores of track-etched polycarbonate membranes, with consequent filling
[...] Read more.
Electrodes based on arrays of TiO2 nanowires were prepared by template sol-gel synthesis with the goal of developing a hydrazine photoelectrochemical sensor. Experimental conditions were chosen so that the gelation reaction occurred inside the nanopores of track-etched polycarbonate membranes, with consequent filling with TiO2 nanowires. Different procedures for the removal of the template were examined, in order to obtain arrays of self-standing TiO2 nanowires. The nanowire arrays were bound to fluorine doped tin oxide substrates to produce handy photoelectrodes. The photocurrent recorded with the photoelectrodes in the presence of hydrazine showed significant dependence on the pollutant concentration. The development of a photoelectrochemical sensor for hydrazine detection in water samples, based on this principle, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 129-145; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020129
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue.
[...] Read more.
Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide) was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition). The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v) in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Development of an Electrochemical Sensor for NADH Determination Based on a Caffeic Acid Redox Mediator Supported on Carbon Black
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 118-128; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020118
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with carbon black nanoparticles (CB) has been tested as a new platform for the stable deposition of caffeic acid (CFA) on the electrode surface. The electrochemical performance from varying the amount of CFA/CB composite has been tested with respect
[...] Read more.
Screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with carbon black nanoparticles (CB) has been tested as a new platform for the stable deposition of caffeic acid (CFA) on the electrode surface. The electrochemical performance from varying the amount of CFA/CB composite has been tested with respect to NADH determination. The electrocatalytic activity of CFA/CB has also been compared with that of SPEs modified by a single component of the coating, i.e., either CFA or CB. Finally, glycerol dehydrogenase, a typical NADH-dependent enzyme, was deposited on the CFA/CB coating in order to test the applicability of the sensor in glycerol determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Anthraquinone Hair Dyes in Wastewaters
Chemosensors 2015, 3(1), 22-35; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3010022
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25) hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated
[...] Read more.
The present work describes the development of a voltammetric sensor for the selective determination of Acid Green 25 (AG25) hair dye, widely used in commercial temporary hair dyes. The method is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes activated in the presence of sulfuric acid, where the anthraquinone group present as a chromophore in the dye molecule is reduced at −0.44 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a reversible process involving two electrons in Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution at pH 4.0. Analytical curves were obtained using square wave voltammetry in the range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 7.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1, achieving a detection limit of 2.7 × 10−9 mol·L−1. The voltammograms recorded for the Acid Black 1 (AB1) dye showed that the azo groups of the dye were reduced on the carbon nanotube-modified electrode (CNTME), presenting a pair of redox peaks at −0.27 V and −0.24 V in the reverse scan. Under these experimental conditions, both dyes could be detected in the water sample, since the AG25 dye is reduced at −0.47 V. The presence of other hair dyes bearing other chromophore groups, such as Acid Black 1, Acid Red 33 and basic blue 99, did not interfere with the method, which showed an average recovery of 96.7 ± 3.5% (n = 5) for AG25 dye determination in the presence of all of these dyes. The method was successfully applied to tap water and wastewater samples collected from a water treatment plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review
Chemosensors 2015, 3(2), 70-117; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3020070
Received: 3 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and
[...] Read more.
The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and speciation information concerning the sensor surface. Nevertheless, XPS remains rather underused in this field. The aim of this paper is to review selected articles which evidence the useful performances of XPS in characterizing the top surface layers of chemically modified sensors and biosensors. A concise introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy gives to the reader the essential background. The application of XPS for characterizing sensors suitable for food and environmental analysis is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis)
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