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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081912

A Third Generation Glucose Biosensor Based on Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Immobilized on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Decorated with Electrodeposited Gold Nanoparticles: Characterization and Application in Human Saliva

1
Department of Chemistry and Drug Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, Rome 5 00185, Italy
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
3
Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, Vienna A-1190, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Based on Carbon Electrodes)
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Abstract

Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between a cellobiose dehydrogenase mutant from Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH C291Y) and a novel glassy carbon (GC)-modified electrode, obtained by direct electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was realized. The electrode was further modified with a mixed self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-APh) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), by using glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. The CtCDH C291Y/GA/4-APh,4-MBA/AuNPs/GC platform showed an apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of 19.4 ± 0.6 s−1, with an enhanced theoretical and real enzyme surface coverage (Γtheor and Γreal) of 5287 ± 152 pmol cm−2 and 27 ± 2 pmol cm−2, respectively. The modified electrode was successively used as glucose biosensor exhibiting a detection limit of 6.2 μM, an extended linear range from 0.02 to 30 mM, a sensitivity of 3.1 ± 0.1 μA mM−1 cm−2 (R2 = 0.995), excellent stability and good selectivity. These performances compared favourably with other glucose biosensors reported in the literature. Finally, the biosensor was tested to quantify the glucose content in human saliva samples with successful results in terms of both recovery and correlation with glucose blood levels, allowing further considerations on the development of non-invasive glucose monitoring devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellobiose dehydrogenase; gold nanoparticles; electrodeposition; glucose biosensor; human saliv cellobiose dehydrogenase; gold nanoparticles; electrodeposition; glucose biosensor; human saliv
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bollella, P.; Gorton, L.; Ludwig, R.; Antiochia, R. A Third Generation Glucose Biosensor Based on Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Immobilized on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Decorated with Electrodeposited Gold Nanoparticles: Characterization and Application in Human Saliva. Sensors 2017, 17, 1912.

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