Special Issue "Groundwater Quantity and Quality"

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A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. John A. Luczaj

Department of Natural & Applied Sciences University of Wisconsin - Green Bay 2420 Nicolet Drive - ES-317 Green Bay, WI 54311, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: many aspects of hydrogeology, geochemistry, and sedimentology, including groundwater quality; stable isotopes; fluid-inclusion microthermometry; Mississippi-Valley-Type (MVT) mineralization; carbonate diagenesis; karst geology; field geology; Earth history; geology of Wisconsin and Michigan
Guest Editor
Dr. Dallas Blaney

Challenge Aspen, P.O. Box 6639, Snowmass Village, CO 81615, USA
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is an essential component of the water cycle and is a critical resource for much of the world’s population. On a planet where demand for groundwater and other resources is ever increasing, issues of groundwater quantity and quality are a major focus in many regions of the world.

This Special Issue will provide an overview of topics that focus on either groundwater quantity or quality issues that are relevant on regional or national scales.  Examples of groundwater quantity issues include long-term groundwater sustainability, interactions between groundwater and ecosystem function, etc. Water quality issues could include effects on water quality from overexploitation of groundwater, contamination from petroleum, and mineral resource development, etc.

Abstracts for papers are invited on the following issues:

  • Governing transboundary groundwater
  • Managing groundwater to promote environmental flows
  • Managing groundwater during drought
  • The current state of arsenic contamination in Bangladesh
  • Water quality impacts from hydrofracturing (fracking)
  • Managing saltwater intrusion along marine coastlines
  • Managing water resources in the High Plains Aquifer (Central US)
  • Endocrine disrupting compounds in aquifers
  • Pathogens in aquifer systems (confined or unconfined)

Prof. John A. Luczaj
Dr. Dallas Blaney
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Print Edition available!
A Print Edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Hardcover: 43.50 CHF*
Pages: 18, 246
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Keywords

  • Groundwater management
  • hydrofracturing (fracking)
  • environmental flows
  • drought
  • contamination
  • saltwater-intrusion
  • aquifer

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Groundwater Quantity and Quality
Resources 2016, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/resources5010010
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world’s population is facing a water crisis, which is expected to worsen dramatically during the 21st century. Problems due to over exploitation of groundwater, as well as from natural and anthropogenic contamination are major challenges facing humanity. This Special Issue contributes a
[...] Read more.
The world’s population is facing a water crisis, which is expected to worsen dramatically during the 21st century. Problems due to over exploitation of groundwater, as well as from natural and anthropogenic contamination are major challenges facing humanity. This Special Issue contributes a selection of topics on groundwater quantity and quality issues that face different parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle Over Exploitation of Groundwater in the Centre of Amman Zarqa Basin—Jordan: Evaluation of Well Data and GRACE Satellite Observations
Resources 2015, 4(4), 819-830; doi:10.3390/resources4040819
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jordan faces a sincere water crisis. Groundwater is the major water resource in Jordan and most of the ground water systems are already exploited beyond their estimated safe yield. The Amman Zarqa Basin is one of the most important groundwater systems in Jordan,
[...] Read more.
Jordan faces a sincere water crisis. Groundwater is the major water resource in Jordan and most of the ground water systems are already exploited beyond their estimated safe yield. The Amman Zarqa Basin is one of the most important groundwater systems in Jordan, which supplies the three largest cities in Jordan with drinking and irrigation water. Based on new data the groundwater drawdown in the Amman Zarqa Basin is studied. This basin is the most used drainage area in Jordan. Groundwater drawdown in eight central representative monitoring wells is outlined. Based on almost continuous data for the last 15 years (2000–2015) an average drawdown for the whole basin in the order of 1.1 m·a1 is calculated. This result is in accordance with results of previous studies in other areas in Jordan and shows that, until now, no sustainable water management is applied. Groundwater management in such a basin presents a challenge for water managers and experts. The applicability of satellite data for estimating large-scale groundwater over exploitation, such as gravity products of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, along with supplementary data, is discussed. Although the size of the basin is below the minimum resolution of GRACE, the data generally support the measured drawdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Groundwater Quality Changes in a Karst Aquifer of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA: Reduction of Brown Water Incidence and Bacterial Contamination Resulting from Implementation of Regional Task Force Recommendations
Resources 2015, 4(3), 655-672; doi:10.3390/resources4030655
Received: 16 April 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the Silurian Dolostone region of eastern Wisconsin, the combination of thin soils and waste application (animal manure, organic waste) has led to significant groundwater contamination, including Brown Water Incidents (BWIs—contamination resulting in a color or odor change in well water) and detections
[...] Read more.
In the Silurian Dolostone region of eastern Wisconsin, the combination of thin soils and waste application (animal manure, organic waste) has led to significant groundwater contamination, including Brown Water Incidents (BWIs—contamination resulting in a color or odor change in well water) and detections of pathogen indicator bacteria such as E. coli and others. In response, a Karst Task Force (KTF) was convened to identify risks and recommend solutions. This article looks at the impact eight years after the 2007 Karst Task Force report—both the actions taken by local resource managers and the changes to water quality. We present the first regional analysis of the 2007 Karst Task Force report and subsequent regulatory changes to determine if these regulations impacted the prevalence of wells contaminated with animal waste and the frequency of BWIs. While all of the counties in the KTF area promoted increased awareness, landowner/manager and waste applicator education alone did not result in a drop in BWIs or other water quality improvements. The two counties in the study that adopted winter manure spreading restrictions on frozen or snow-covered ground showed statistically significant reductions in the instances of BWIs and other well water quality problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies
Resources 2015, 4(3), 637-654; doi:10.3390/resources4030637
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species,
[...] Read more.
The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria). Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Columbia River Basalt Group Aquifer in Sustained Drought: Insight from Geophysical Methods
Resources 2015, 4(3), 577-596; doi:10.3390/resources4030577
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) provide a critical water supply throughout much of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Increased pumping has resulted in water level declines in this region. Recharge into this aquifer system is generally not well
[...] Read more.
Aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) provide a critical water supply throughout much of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Increased pumping has resulted in water level declines in this region. Recharge into this aquifer system is generally not well understood. Recent suggestions of probable decades-long droughts in the 21st century add to this problem. We show that geophysical methods can provide useful parameters for improved modeling of aquifers in a primary CRBG aquifer located on the eastern edge of the Columbia Plateau. Groundwater models depend in part on the area, thickness, porosity, storativity, and nature of confinement of this aquifer, most of which are poorly constrained by existing well information and previous stress tests. We have made use of surface gravity measurements, borehole gravity measurements, barometric efficiency estimates, earth tidal response, and earthquake seismology observations to constrain these parameters. We show that the aquifer, despite its persistent drawdown, receives a great deal of recharge annually. Much of the recharge to the aquifer is due to leakage from overlying flows, ultimately tied to precipitation, an important result for future aquifer management in times of sustained drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Groundwater Abstraction for Irrigation and Its Impacts on Low Flows in a Watershed in Northwest Germany
Resources 2015, 4(3), 566-576; doi:10.3390/resources4030566
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low flows of the Ilmenau River (1434 km2) in northwest Germany have decreased by about 25% over the last 50 years. In the same period, moderate climate changes have taken place and annual groundwater abstractions for sprinkler irrigation have increased by
[...] Read more.
Low flows of the Ilmenau River (1434 km2) in northwest Germany have decreased by about 25% over the last 50 years. In the same period, moderate climate changes have taken place and annual groundwater abstractions for sprinkler irrigation have increased by up to 50 hm3 (million m3), with a strong variation due to the respective prevailing weather conditions. Time-series analyses with multiple regression analysis allow detecting and quantifying different influences on low flows. It is also shown that farmers allocate irrigation water volumes carefully according to seasonal precipitation and temperatures. Decline of groundwater levels in summer and the low flow situation are aggravated by the cumulative effect of higher irrigation in drier years. Groundwater recharge and recovery of the water table have been observed subsequently during the winter season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy
Resources 2015, 4(3), 476-489; doi:10.3390/resources4030476
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water) from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy). Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in
[...] Read more.
This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water) from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy). Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Geochemical Characterization of Groundwater in a Volcanic System
Resources 2015, 4(2), 358-377; doi:10.3390/resources4020358
Received: 14 March 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A geochemical investigation was undertaken at Mt. Etna Volcano to better define groundwater characteristics of its aquifers. Results indicate that the Na–Mg ± Ca–HCO3 ± (SO42− or Cl) type accounts for more than 80% of the groundwater
[...] Read more.
A geochemical investigation was undertaken at Mt. Etna Volcano to better define groundwater characteristics of its aquifers. Results indicate that the Na–Mg ± Ca–HCO3 ± (SO42− or Cl) type accounts for more than 80% of the groundwater composition in the volcano. The remaining 20% is characterized by elevated Ca2+. Waters along coastal areas are enriched in SO42− or Cl, mainly due to mixing with seawater and anthropogenic effects. The majority of the samples showed values between −4‰ to −9‰ for δ18O and −19‰ to −53‰ for δ2H, suggesting that precipitation is the predominant source of recharge to the aquifers, especially in the west of the study area. The analysis of δ13C and pCO2 shows values 1 to 3 times higher than those expected for waters in equilibrium with the atmosphere, suggesting a partial gas contribution from deep sources. The diffusion of gasses is likely to be controlled by tectonic structures in the volcano. The ascent of deep brines is also reflected in the CO2 enrichment (up to 2.2 bars) and enriched δ2H/δ18O compositions observed in the salt mounts of Paternò. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Energy-Water Nexus: An Analysis and Comparison of Various Configurations Integrating Desalination with Renewable Power
Resources 2015, 4(2), 227-276; doi:10.3390/resources4020227
Received: 7 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation studies desalination powered by wind and solar energy, including a study of a configuration using PVT solar panels. First, a water treatment was developed to estimate the power requirement for brackish groundwater reverse-osmosis (BWRO) desalination. Next, an energy model was designed
[...] Read more.
This investigation studies desalination powered by wind and solar energy, including a study of a configuration using PVT solar panels. First, a water treatment was developed to estimate the power requirement for brackish groundwater reverse-osmosis (BWRO) desalination. Next, an energy model was designed to (1) size a wind farm based on this power requirement and (2) size a solar farm to preheat water before reverse osmosis treatment. Finally, an integrated model was developed that combines results from the water treatment and energy models. The integrated model optimizes performances of the proposed facility to maximize daily operational profits. Results indicate that integrated facility can reduce grid-purchased electricity costs by 88% during summer months and 89% during winter when compared to a stand-alone desalination plant. Additionally, the model suggests that the integrated configuration can generate $574 during summer and $252 during winter from sales of wind- and solar-generated electricity to supplement revenue from water production. These results indicate that an integrated facility combining desalination, wind power, and solar power can potentially reduce reliance on grid-purchased electricity and advance the use of renewable power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Groundwater Challenges of the Lower Rio Grande: A Case Study of Legal Issues in Texas and New Mexico
Resources 2015, 4(2), 172-184; doi:10.3390/resources4020172
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with
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In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with a variable climate and frequent drought conditions and established the Rio Grande Compact Commission, comprised of a commissioner from each state and one from the federal government, to enforce the compact. With an increasing population and declining surface water supply, the Compact has been tested among the parties and within the states themselves. In a case currently before the U.S. Supreme Court, Texas v. New Mexico and Colorado (2013), Texas claims New Mexico is violating the Compact and Rio Grande Project Act by using water in excess of its apportionment through its allowance of diversions of surface and groundwater. The issue is further compounded by disputes within Texas over separate legal regimes for groundwater and surface water. Combined with growing scarcity issues, the allocation of water in the Lower Rio Grande presents a timely natural resource challenge. This review explores legal issues involved in the case as well as growing challenges of population growth, agricultural development needs, and water shortages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA
Resources 2015, 4(2), 323-357; doi:10.3390/resources4020323
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in
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The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan
Resources 2015, 4(4), 831-856; doi:10.3390/resources4040831
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS), and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA) of the Lower Indus
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS), and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA) of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA) of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM)) for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality) Print Edition available

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