Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Groundwater Quality Changes in a Karst Aquifer of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA: Reduction of Brown Water Incidence and Bacterial Contamination Resulting from Implementation of Regional Task Force Recommendations
Previous Article in Journal
An Innovative Device to Convert Olive Mill Wastewater into a Suitable Effluent for Feeding Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Columbia River Basalt Group Aquifer in Sustained Drought: Insight from Geophysical Methods
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Resources 2015, 4(3), 637-654; doi:10.3390/resources4030637

Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

1
National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O.BOX 95, Kuopio 70701, Finland
2
Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 66, Helsinki 00014, Finland
3
Finnish Environment Institute, P.O.Box 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland
4
The Water Protection Association of the River Vantaa and Helsinki Region, Asemapäällikönkatu 12 B, Helsinki 00520, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John A. Luczaj
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quantity and Quality)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [231 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria). Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Giardia; groundwater quality; small water supply; surface water contamination Giardia; groundwater quality; small water supply; surface water contamination
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pitkänen, T.; Juselius, T.; Isomäki, E.; Miettinen, I.T.; Valve, M.; Kivimäki, A.-L.; Lahti, K.; Hänninen, M.-L. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies. Resources 2015, 4, 637-654.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top