E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Atmosphere Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky

VITROCISET, Bratustrasse, 7 D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49(0)6151 9573410
Fax: +49(0)6151 9573426
Interests: remote sensing; light scattering; radiative transfer; inverse problems; atmospheric optics; retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from spaceborne observations
Guest Editor
Dr. Thomas Ruhtz

Freie Universität Berlin Institut für Weltraumwissenschaften (Institute for Space Sciences) Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, 12165 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: remote sensing; light scattering; polarization; retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties; radiative transfer; instrument design and technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmospheric correction of airborne and satellite data is a hot topic of modern atmospheric optics. This subject is of paramount importance for exploration of terrestrial surface (land and ocean) using airborne and spaceborne observations. Absorption and scattering of light by aerosols, thin clouds and atmospheric gases must be accounted for in procedures of atmospheric correction. Advanced cloud screening algorithms must be applied to have accurate and robust atmospheric correction results.

Atmospheric correction of optical and thermal infrared imagery is a mature research field with a long history. Great progress has been achieved (especially in the last 40 years) in this area of general atmospheric research. However, more research is needed in this area. In particular, new fast codes for the solution of the inverse problem, based on multi-angular light intensity and polarization measurements, must be developed and applied to the problem of atmospheric correction on local/global scales, including real-time operational retrievals.

This Special Issue is aimed at the presentation of recent results in the general area of atmospheric correction of airborne and satellite measurements, the determination of terrestrial surface parameters, including validation of retrievals based on independent measurements.

Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky
Dr. Thomas Ruhtz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Atmospheric correction
  • Radiative transfer
  • Bidirectional reflectance distribution function
  • Light scattering
  • Surface reflectance
  • Airborne remote sensing
  • Satellite remote sensing
  • Polarization

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Removal of Thin Cirrus Scattering Effects in Landsat 8 OLI Images Using the Cirrus Detecting Channel
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 834; doi:10.3390/rs9080834
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thin cirrus clouds frequently contaminate images acquired with either Landsat 7 ETM+ or the earlier generation of Landsat series satellite instruments. The situation has changed since the launch of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) into space in 2013. OLI implemented a
[...] Read more.
Thin cirrus clouds frequently contaminate images acquired with either Landsat 7 ETM+ or the earlier generation of Landsat series satellite instruments. The situation has changed since the launch of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) into space in 2013. OLI implemented a cirrus detecting channel (Band 9) centered within a strong atmospheric water vapor absorption band near 1.375 μm with a width of 30 nm. The specifications for this channel were the same as those specified for the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the early 1990s. The OLI Band 9 has been proven to be very effective in detecting and masking thin cirrus-contaminated pixels at the high spatial resolution of 30 m. However, this channel has not yet been routinely used for the correction of thin cirrus effects in other OLI band images. In this article, we describe an empirical technique for the removal of thin cirrus scattering effects in OLI visible near infrared (IR) and shortwave IR (SWIR) spectral regions. We present results from applications of the technique to three OLI data sets. We also discuss issues associated with parallax anomalies in OLI data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Correction of Multi-Spectral Littoral Images Using a PHOTONS/AERONET-Based Regional Aerosol Model
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 814; doi:10.3390/rs9080814
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
PDF Full-text (5516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial resolution is the main instrumental requirement for the multi-spectral optical space missions that address the scientific issues of marine coastal systems. This spatial resolution should be at least decametric. Aquatic color data processing associated with these environments requires specific atmospheric corrections (AC)
[...] Read more.
Spatial resolution is the main instrumental requirement for the multi-spectral optical space missions that address the scientific issues of marine coastal systems. This spatial resolution should be at least decametric. Aquatic color data processing associated with these environments requires specific atmospheric corrections (AC) suitable for the spectral characteristics of high spatial resolution sensors (HRS) as well as the high range of atmospheric and marine optical properties. The objective of the present study is to develop and demonstrate the potential of a ground-based AC approach adaptable to any HRS for regional monitoring and security of littoral systems. The in Situ-based Atmospheric CORrection (SACOR) algorithm is based on simulations provided by a Successive Order of Scattering code (SOS), which is constrained by a simple regional aerosol particle model (RAM). This RAM is defined from the mixture of a standard tropospheric and maritime aerosol type. The RAM is derived from the following two processes. The first process involved the analysis of a 6-year data set composed of aerosol optical and microphysical properties acquired through the ground-based PHOTONS/AERONET network located at Arcachon (France). The second process was related to aerosol climatology using the NOAA hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Results show that aerosols have a bimodal particle size distribution regardless of the season and are mainly represented by a mixed coastal continental type. Furthermore, the results indicate that aerosols originate from both the Atlantic Ocean (53.6%) and Continental Europe (46.4%). Based on these results, absorbing biomass burning, urban-industrial and desert dust particles have not been considered although they represent on average 19% of the occurrences. This represents the main current limitation of the RAM. An assessment of the performances of SACOR is then performed by inter-comparing the water-leaving reflectance ( ρ w ) retrievals with three different AC methods (ACOLITE, MACCS and 6SV using three different standard aerosol types) using match-ups (N = 8) composed of Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes and field radiometric measurements. Results indicate consistency with the SWIR-based ACOLITE method, which shows the best performance, except in the green channel where SACOR matches well with the in-situ data (relative error of 7%). In conclusion, the study demonstrates the high potential of the SACOR approach for the retrieval of ρ w . In the future, the method could be improved by using an adaptive aerosol model, which may select the most relevant local aerosol model following the origin of the atmospheric air mass, and could be applied to the latest HRS (Sentinel-2/MSI, SPOT6-7, Pleiades 1A-1B). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Automatic Cloud and Shadow Detection in Optical Satellite Imagery Without Using Thermal Bands—Application to Suomi NPP VIIRS Images over Fennoscandia
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 806; doi:10.3390/rs9080806
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
PDF Full-text (32407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite)
[...] Read more.
In land monitoring applications, clouds and shadows are considered noise that should be removed as automatically and quickly as possible, before further analysis. This paper presents a method to detect clouds and shadows in Suomi NPP satellite’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) satellite images. The proposed cloud and shadow detection method has two distinct features when compared to many other methods. First, the method does not use the thermal bands and can thus be applied to other sensors which do not contain thermal channels, such as Sentinel-2 data. Secondly, the method uses the ratio between blue and green reflectance to detect shadows. Seven hundred and forty-seven VIIRS images over Fennoscandia from August 2014 to April 2016 were processed to train and develop the method. Twenty four points from every tenth of the images were used in accuracy assessment. These 1752 points were interpreted visually to cloud, cloud shadow and clear classes, then compared to the output of the cloud and shadow detection. The comparison on VIIRS images showed 94.2% correct detection rates and 11.1% false alarms for clouds, and respectively 36.1% and 82.7% for shadows. The results on cloud detection were similar to state-of-the-art methods. Shadows showed correctly on the northern edge of the clouds, but many shadows were wrongly assigned to other classes in some cases (e.g., to water class on lake and forest boundary, or with shadows over cloud). This may be due to the low spatial resolution of VIIRS images, where shadows are only a few pixels wide and contain lots of mixed pixels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Effect Analysis and Correction of the Microwave Vegetation Index
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(6), 606; doi:10.3390/rs9060606
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
PDF Full-text (7613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microwave vegetation index (MVI) is a vegetation index defined in microwave bands. It has been developed based on observations from AMSR-E and widely used to monitor global vegetation. Recently, our study found that MVI was influenced by the atmosphere, although it was calculated
[...] Read more.
Microwave vegetation index (MVI) is a vegetation index defined in microwave bands. It has been developed based on observations from AMSR-E and widely used to monitor global vegetation. Recently, our study found that MVI was influenced by the atmosphere, although it was calculated from microwave bands. Ignoring the atmospheric influence might bring obvious uncertainty to the study of global vegetation. In this study, an atmospheric effect sensitivity analysis for MVI was carried out, and an atmospheric correction algorithm was developed to reduce the influence of the atmosphere. The sensitivity analysis showed that water vapor, clouds and precipitation were main parameters that had an influence on MVI. The result of the atmospheric correction on MVI was validated at both temporal and spatial scales. The validation showed that the atmospheric correction algorithm developed in this study could obviously improve the underestimation of MVI on most land surfaces. Seasonal patterns in the uncorrected MVI were obviously related to atmospheric water content besides vegetation changes. In addition, global maps of MVI showed significant differences before and after atmospheric correction in the northern hemisphere in the northern summer. The atmospheric correction will make the MVI more reliable and improve its performance in calculating vegetation biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle SAHARA: A Simplified AtmospHeric Correction AlgoRithm for Chinese gAofen Data: 1. Aerosol Algorithm
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 253; doi:10.3390/rs9030253
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
PDF Full-text (13249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recently launched Chinese GaoFen-4 (GF4) satellite provides valuable information to obtain geophysical parameters describing conditions in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. The surface reflectance is an important parameter for the estimation of other remote sensing parameters linked to the eco-environment,
[...] Read more.
The recently launched Chinese GaoFen-4 (GF4) satellite provides valuable information to obtain geophysical parameters describing conditions in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. The surface reflectance is an important parameter for the estimation of other remote sensing parameters linked to the eco-environment, atmosphere environment and energy balance. One of the key issues to achieve atmospheric corrected surface reflectance is to precisely retrieve the aerosol optical properties, especially Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The retrieval of AOD and corresponding atmospheric correction procedure normally use the full radiative transfer calculation or Look-Up-Table (LUT) methods, which is very time-consuming. In this paper, a Simplified AtmospHeric correction AlgoRithm for gAofen data (SAHARA) is presented for the retrieval of AOD and corresponding atmospheric correction procedure. This paper is the first part of the algorithm, which describes the aerosol retrieval algorithm. In order to achieve high-accuracy analytical form for both LUT and surface parameterization, the MODIS Dark-Target (DT) aerosol types and Deep Blue (DB) similar surface parameterization have been proposed for GF4 data. Limited Gaofen observations (i.e., all that were available) have been tested and validated. The retrieval results agree quite well with MODIS Collection 6.0 aerosol product, with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.72. The comparison between GF4 derived AOD and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations has a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. The algorithm, after comprehensive validation, can be used as an operational running algorithm for creating aerosol product from the Chinese GF4 satellite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Comparison of MODIS/VIIRS Cloud Masks over Ice-Bearing River: On Achieving Consistent Cloud Masking and Improved River Ice Mapping
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 229; doi:10.3390/rs9030229
Received: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
PDF Full-text (1970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The capability of frequently and accurately monitoring ice on rivers is important, since it may be possible to timely identify ice accumulations corresponding to ice jams. Ice jams are dam-like structures formed from arrested ice floes, and may cause rapid flooding. To inform
[...] Read more.
The capability of frequently and accurately monitoring ice on rivers is important, since it may be possible to timely identify ice accumulations corresponding to ice jams. Ice jams are dam-like structures formed from arrested ice floes, and may cause rapid flooding. To inform on this potential hazard, the CREST River Ice Observing System (CRIOS) produces ice cover maps based on MODIS and VIIRS overpass data at several locations, including the Susquehanna River. CRIOS uses the respective platform’s automatically produced cloud masks to discriminate ice/snow covered grid cells from clouds. However, since cloud masks are produced using each instrument’s data, and owing to differences in detector performance, it is quite possible that identical algorithms applied to even nearly identical instruments may produce substantially different cloud masks. Besides detector performance, cloud identification can be biased due to local (e.g., land cover), viewing geometry, and transient conditions (snow and ice). Snow/cloud confusions and large view angles can result in substantial overestimates of clouds and ice. This impacts algorithms, such as CRIOS, since false cloud cover precludes the determination of whether an otherwise reasonably cloud free grid consists of water or ice. Especially for applications aiming to frequently classify or monitor a location it is important to evaluate cloud masking, including false cloud detections. We present an assessment of three cloud masks via the parameter of effective revisit time. A 100 km stretch of up to 1.6 km wide river was examined with daily data sampled at 500 m resolution, examined over 317 days during winter. Results show that there are substantial differences between each of the cloud mask products, especially while the river bears ice. A contrast-based cloud screening approach was found to provide improved and consistent cloud and ice identification within the reach (95%–99% correlations, and 3%–7% mean absolute differences) between the independently observing platforms. River ice was also detected accurately (proportion correct 95%–100%) and more frequently. Owing to cross-platform compositing, it is possible to obtain an effective revisit time of 2.8 days and further error reductions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Improved Aerosol Optical Thickness, Columnar Water Vapor, and Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Combined CASI and SASI Airborne Hyperspectral Sensors
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 217; doi:10.3390/rs9030217
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
PDF Full-text (3619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increasingly common requirement in remote sensing is the integration of hyperspectral data collected simultaneously from different sensors (and fore-optics) operating across different wavelength ranges. Data from one module are often relied on to correct information in the other, such as aerosol optical
[...] Read more.
An increasingly common requirement in remote sensing is the integration of hyperspectral data collected simultaneously from different sensors (and fore-optics) operating across different wavelength ranges. Data from one module are often relied on to correct information in the other, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and columnar water vapor (CWV). This paper describes problems associated with this process and recommends an improved strategy for processing remote sensing data, collected from both visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared modules, to retrieve accurate AOT, CWV, and surface reflectance values. This strategy includes a workflow for radiometric and spatial cross-calibration and a method to retrieve atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance based on a radiative transfer function. This method was tested using data collected with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and SWIR Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI) from a site in Huailai County, Hebei Province, China. Various methods for retrieving AOT and CWV specific to this region were assessed. The results showed that retrieving AOT from the remote sensing data required establishing empirical relationships between 465.6 nm/659 nm and 2105 nm, augmented by ground-based reflectance validation data, and minimizing the merit function based on AOT@550 nm optimization. The paper also extends the second-order difference algorithm (SODA) method using Powell’s methods to optimize CWV retrieval. The resulting CWV image has fewer residual surface features compared with the standard methods. The derived remote sensing surface reflectance correlated significantly with the ground spectra of comparable vegetation, cement road and soil targets. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable enough for integrated atmospheric correction and surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing data. This study provides a good reference for surface reflectance inversion that lacks synchronized atmospheric parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Correction of Remote Sensing Data)
Figures

Figure 1

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Remote Sensing Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Special Issue Edit a special issue Review for Remote Sensing
logo
loading...
Back to Top