Special Issue "3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices"

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Susumu Noda

Department of Electronic Science and Engineering Kyoto University Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 Japan
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Kenko Taguchi

Department of Electronic Science and Engineering Kyoto University Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 Japan
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Special Issue Information

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D and 2D Nanotechnological fabrication methods
  • 3D and 2D Photonic and electromagnetic crystals
  • 3D and 2D Metamaterials
  • 3D and 2D Plasmonics
  • Nanofabricated novel concepts and applications
  • Nano devices and components

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Semiconductor Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals with Novel Layer-by-Layer Structures
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 34; doi:10.3390/photonics3020034
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract
Three-dimensional photonic crystals (3D PhCs) are a fascinating platform for manipulating photons and controlling their interactions with matter. One widely investigated structure is the layer-by-layer woodpile structure, which possesses a complete photonic bandgap. On the other hand, other types of 3D PhC structures
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional photonic crystals (3D PhCs) are a fascinating platform for manipulating photons and controlling their interactions with matter. One widely investigated structure is the layer-by-layer woodpile structure, which possesses a complete photonic bandgap. On the other hand, other types of 3D PhC structures also offer various possibilities for controlling light by utilizing the three dimensional nature of structures. In this article, we discuss our recent research into novel types of layer-by-layer structures, including the experimental demonstration of a 3D PhC nanocavity formed in a <110>-layered diamond structure and the realization of artificial optical activity in rotationally stacked woodpile structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Advanced Fabrication of Single-Mode and Multi-Wavelength MIR-QCLs
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 26; doi:10.3390/photonics3020026
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
PDF Full-text (4496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this article we present our latest work on the optimization of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser fabrication techniques. Our efforts are focused on low dissipation devices, broad-area high-power photonic crystal lasers, as well as multi-wavelength devices realized either as arrays or multi-section distributed
[...] Read more.
In this article we present our latest work on the optimization of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser fabrication techniques. Our efforts are focused on low dissipation devices, broad-area high-power photonic crystal lasers, as well as multi-wavelength devices realized either as arrays or multi-section distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We summarize our latest achievements and update them with our most recent results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Spectroscopic Properties of Gold Curvilinear Nanorod Arrays
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 18; doi:10.3390/photonics3020018
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 2 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 April 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
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Abstract
We designed and fabricated gold curvilinear nanorod periodical arrays using microfabrication techniques. The gold curvilinear nanorods had two distinct resonant peaks in the near-infrared region between 1630 nm and 3000 nm. Similar peak was observed in gold straight nanorods at specific lengths. At
[...] Read more.
We designed and fabricated gold curvilinear nanorod periodical arrays using microfabrication techniques. The gold curvilinear nanorods had two distinct resonant peaks in the near-infrared region between 1630 nm and 3000 nm. Similar peak was observed in gold straight nanorods at specific lengths. At lengths identical to the arc length of the curvilinear nanorod, the peak was in the relative range of 3000 nm, which corresponds to the longitudinal plasmon mode (L-mode). At lengths identical to half of the arc length of the curvilinear nanorod, the peak was close to 1630 nm. Plasmon resonant peaks were tunable in the infrared region by changing the arc length of the curve, the line width, and distance between the curvilinear nanorods. In particular, when two curvilinear nanorods were closely packed in a range of less than 100 nm, the peak wavelength of curvilinear nanorod was shifted due to the plasmonic coupling of each mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Wide Spectral Characteristics of Si Photonic Crystal Mach-Zehnder Modulator Fabricated by Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 17; doi:10.3390/photonics3020017
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 27 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical modulators for optical interconnects require a small size, small voltage, high speed and wide working spectrum. For this purpose, we developed Si slow-light Mach-Zehnder modulators via a 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. We employed 200 μm lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides with interleaved
[...] Read more.
Optical modulators for optical interconnects require a small size, small voltage, high speed and wide working spectrum. For this purpose, we developed Si slow-light Mach-Zehnder modulators via a 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. We employed 200 μm lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides with interleaved p-n junctions as phase shifters. The group index spectrum of slow light was almost flat at ng ≈ 20 but exhibited ±10% fluctuation over a wavelength bandwidth of 20 nm. The cutoff frequency measured in this bandwidth ranged from 15 to 20 GHz; thus, clear open eyes were observed in the 25 Gbps modulation. However, the fluctuation in ng was reflected in the extinction ratio and bit-error rate. For a stable error-free operation, a 1 dB margin is necessary in the extinction ratio. In addition, we constructed a device with varied values of ng and confirmed that the extinction ratio at this speed was enhanced by larger ng up to 60. However, this larger ng reduced the cutoff frequency because of increased phase mismatch between slow light and radio frequency signals. Therefore, ng available for 25 Gbps modulation is limited to up to 40 for the current device design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Tuning of Transmission Wavelength of MEMS-Based Ge Waveguides on a Si Beam
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 14; doi:10.3390/photonics3020014
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
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Abstract
Three-dimensional structures of microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based Ge waveguide on a Si beam were fabricated for dynamic tuning of the fundamental absorption edge of Ge by external stressing. The application of various amounts of external forces up to 1 GPa onto the Si beam
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional structures of microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based Ge waveguide on a Si beam were fabricated for dynamic tuning of the fundamental absorption edge of Ge by external stressing. The application of various amounts of external forces up to 1 GPa onto the Si beam shows clear red-shifts in the absorption edge of Ge waveguides on the Si beam by ~40 nm. This shift was reproduced by the deformation potential theory, considering that mode of propagation in the Ge waveguide. The wavelength tuning range obtained makes it possible to cover the whole C-band of optical communication, indicating it to be a promising approach to electro-absorption Ge modulators to get them to work with a broader wavelength range than previously reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle A High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Based upon Periodic Shallow Microstructures Coated by Multi-Layers Using Atomic Layer Deposition
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 13; doi:10.3390/photonics3020013
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4009 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regarding the fabrication of solar selective absorbers, the ability to create microstructures on top of metal surfaces is a promising technology. Typically, these materials are able to possess spectrally-selective absorption properties for high-temperature usage. Solar-selective absorbers that function at temperatures up to 700
[...] Read more.
Regarding the fabrication of solar selective absorbers, the ability to create microstructures on top of metal surfaces is a promising technology. Typically, these materials are able to possess spectrally-selective absorption properties for high-temperature usage. Solar-selective absorbers that function at temperatures up to 700 °C and possess shallow honeycomb cylindrical microcavities coated with a metal-dielectric multi-layer have been investigated. Honeycomb array cylindrical microcavities were fabricated on W substrate with interference lithography and multi-layers consisting of Pt nano-film sandwiched by Al2O3 layers were created for a uniform coating via atomic layer deposition. The absorbance spectrum of fabricated samples reveals results consistent with a simulation based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. A solar absorbance value of 0.92 and a hemispherical total emittance value of 0.18 at 700 °C was determined from the fabricated solar-selective absorber. Additionally, thermal stability of up to 700 °C was confirmed in vacuum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Surface Plasmons Propagation via Photonic Nanojets with Periodically Spaced 3D Dielectric Cuboids
Photonics 2016, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/photonics3010010
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A structure based on periodically arranged 3D dielectric cuboids connected by photonic nanojets (PNJs) is proposed with the aim of increasing the propagation distance of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. The performance of the structure is evaluated
[...] Read more.
A structure based on periodically arranged 3D dielectric cuboids connected by photonic nanojets (PNJs) is proposed with the aim of increasing the propagation distance of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. The performance of the structure is evaluated and compared with the case without the cuboids demonstrating that the SPPs propagation length is enhanced by a factor greater than 2, reaching a value of approximately 19λ0, when the gap between the cuboids is 2.5λ0. Also, the dependence of the propagation length with the height of the cubes is evaluated, showing that this parameter is critical for a good performance of the chain. A subwavelength resolution is obtained for all the jets generated at the output of the cuboids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessCommunication Absorption Properties of Simply Fabricated All-Metal Mushroom Plasmonic Metamaterials Incorporating Tube-Shaped Posts for Multi-Color Uncooled Infrared Image Sensor Applications
Photonics 2016, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/photonics3010009
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wavelength-selective infrared (IR) absorbers have attracted considerable interest due to their potential for a wide range of applications. In particular, they can be employed as advanced uncooled IR sensors that identify objects through their radiation spectra. Herein, we propose a mushroom plasmonic metamaterial
[...] Read more.
Wavelength-selective infrared (IR) absorbers have attracted considerable interest due to their potential for a wide range of applications. In particular, they can be employed as advanced uncooled IR sensors that identify objects through their radiation spectra. Herein, we propose a mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorber incorporating tube-shaped metal posts (MPMAT) for use in the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) region. The MPMAT design consists of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate via tube-shaped metal posts. Both the micropatches and posts can be constructed simultaneously as a result of the tube-shaped structure of the metal post structure; thus, the fabrication procedure is both simple and low cost. The absorption properties of these MPMATs were assessed both theoretically and experimentally, and the results of both investigations demonstrated that these devices exhibit suitable levels of LWIR absorption regardless of the specific tube-shaped structures employed. It was also found to be possible to tune the absorption wavelength by varying the micropatch width and the inner diameter of the tube-shaped metal posts, and to obtain absorbance values of over 90%. Focal plane array structures based on such MPMATs could potentially serve as high-performance, low-cost, multi-spectral uncooled IR image sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystals toward Arbitrary Manipulation of Photons in Three Dimensions
Photonics 2016, 3(2), 36; doi:10.3390/photonics3020036
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The creation of large-area, unintentional-defect-free three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals in the optical regime is a key challenge toward the realization of the arbitrary 3D manipulation of photons. In this article, we discuss an advanced fabrication method of 3D silicon photonic crystals based on
[...] Read more.
The creation of large-area, unintentional-defect-free three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals in the optical regime is a key challenge toward the realization of the arbitrary 3D manipulation of photons. In this article, we discuss an advanced fabrication method of 3D silicon photonic crystals based on the highly accurate alignment and wafer bonding of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. We introduce an advanced alignment system, in which the alignment process is automated by image recognition and feed-back control of stages, and show that it achieves an alignment accuracy better than ~50 nm. The bonding of SOI wafers is also investigated to obtain 3D crystals composed of highly pure crystalline silicon. We show the fabrication results of large-area 3D photonic crystals based on such considerations and demonstrate the successful introduction of artificial defects as functional components, such as coupled waveguide pairs or waveguides/nanocavities. We expect that these will be pioneering results toward the arbitrary 3D control of photons using 3D photonic crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D- and 2D-Nanofabrication for Photonic Devices)
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