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Special Issue "Nutrigenomics"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marie-Claude Vohl

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 4186562131poste4676
Interests: Nutrigenomics; Nutrigenetics; Cardiometabolic Diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the completion of the mapping of the Human Genome, a cumulative number of studies have been performed to identify genetic factors that may explain the inter-individual variability observed in the metabolic response to specific diets. Accordingly, numerous genetic variations have already been identified as relevant determinants of the heterogeneous response to nutrient intake. Although most findings on this topic still have not delivered their fully-expected potential in terms of translation and application to clinical practice, research is still ongoing and nutritional recommendations, solely based on genetic background, have emerged.

Gene–diet interactions have also been frequently investigated in association studies seeking risk factors predisposing to chronic societal diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. Further research is focused on revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these associations allowing to interpret their biological significance and potential clinical applications.

The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews in the field of nutrigenomics/nutrigenetics.

Prof. Dr. Marie-Claude Vohl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Personalized Nutrition
  • Functional Genomics
  • Gene-Diet Interactions

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Food Consumption as a Modifier of the Association between LEPR Gene Variants and Excess Body Weight in Children and Adolescents: A Study of the SCAALA Cohort
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081117
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
No studies showing that food consumption is a modifier of the association of variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with body weight have involved a Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifying effect of dietary
[...] Read more.
No studies showing that food consumption is a modifier of the association of variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with body weight have involved a Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifying effect of dietary intake on the association between the LEPR gene and excess weight. In this study, 1211 children and adolescents aged 4–11 years were assessed. Participants were genotyped for 112 single-nucleotide variants of the LEPR gene. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and dietary data were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to study the associations of interest. Of the participants, 13.4% were overweight/obese. The risk allele (G) of the rs1137100 variant was associated with excess weight in individuals with fat consumption below the median (odds ratio OR = 1.92; 95% confidence interval CI = 1.18–3.14), with daily frequency of consumption of drink/artificial juice (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26–3.68) and refined cereals (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.31–3.62) above the median. The risk allele (G) of variant rs1177681 was also associated with excess weight (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.65–4.57) in subjects with a daily frequency of refined cereal consumption above the median. The association between LEPR and excess weight can be modulated by the type and distribution of dietary fatty acids, sugary drinks, and refined cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessArticle Genetic and Common Environmental Contributions to Familial Resemblances in Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations in Healthy Families
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081002
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Carotenoids have shown an interindividual variability that may be due to genetic factors. The only study that has reported heritability of serum α- and β-carotene has not considered the environmental component. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of both genetic and common
[...] Read more.
Carotenoids have shown an interindividual variability that may be due to genetic factors. The only study that has reported heritability of serum α- and β-carotene has not considered the environmental component. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of both genetic and common environmental effects to the variance of carotenoid concentrations and to test whether their phenotypic correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors are explained by shared genetic and environmental effects. Plasma carotenoid concentrations (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids) of 48 healthy subjects were measured. Heritability estimates of carotenoid concentrations were calculated using the variance component method. Lutein and lycopene showed a significant familial effect (p = 6 × 10−6 and 0.0043, respectively). Maximal heritability, genetic heritability, and common environmental effect were computed for lutein (88.3%, 43.8%, and 44.5%, respectively) and lycopene (45.2%, 0%, and 45.2%, respectively). Significant phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors were obtained for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. Familial resemblances in lycopene concentrations were mainly attributable to common environmental effects, while for lutein concentrations they were attributable to genetic and common environmental effects. Common genetic and environmental factors may influence carotenoids and cardiometabolic risk factors, but further studies are needed to better understand the potential impact on disease development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060789
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution
[...] Read more.
The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan) were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle Modulation of miRNAs by Vitamin C in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020186
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18–25 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that have been identified as potential regulators of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, differentiation, and musculoskeletal development. Vitamin C is known to play a vital role in such types of biological processes through various
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (18–25 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that have been identified as potential regulators of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, differentiation, and musculoskeletal development. Vitamin C is known to play a vital role in such types of biological processes through various different mechanisms by altering mRNA expression. We hypothesized that vitamin C mediates these biological processes partially through miRNA regulation. We performed global miRNA expression analysis on human BMSCs following vitamin C treatment using microarrays containing human precursor and mature miRNA probes. Bioinformatics analyses were performed on differentially expressed miRNAs to identify novel target genes and signaling pathways. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that the miRNAs may regulate multiple stem cell-specific signaling pathways such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), fatty acid biosynthesis and hormone signaling pathways. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel stem cell proliferation and differentiation gene targets. The findings of the present study demonstrate that vitamin C can have positive effects on BMSCs in part by regulating miRNA expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020153
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of
[...] Read more.
Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47). Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Critical Evaluation of Gene Expression Changes in Human Tissues in Response to Supplementation with Dietary Bioactive Compounds: Moving Towards Better-Quality Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070807
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pre-clinical cell and animal nutrigenomic studies have long suggested the modulation of the transcription of multiple gene targets in cells and tissues as a potential molecular mechanism of action underlying the beneficial effects attributed to plant-derived bioactive compounds. To try to demonstrate these
[...] Read more.
Pre-clinical cell and animal nutrigenomic studies have long suggested the modulation of the transcription of multiple gene targets in cells and tissues as a potential molecular mechanism of action underlying the beneficial effects attributed to plant-derived bioactive compounds. To try to demonstrate these molecular effects in humans, a considerable number of clinical trials have now explored the changes in the expression levels of selected genes in various human cell and tissue samples following intervention with different dietary sources of bioactive compounds. In this review, we have compiled a total of 75 human studies exploring gene expression changes using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). We have critically appraised the study design and methodology used as well as the gene expression results reported. We herein pinpoint some of the main drawbacks and gaps in the experimental strategies applied, as well as the high interindividual variability of the results and the limited evidence supporting some of the investigated genes as potential responsive targets. We reinforce the need to apply normalized procedures and follow well-established methodological guidelines in future studies in order to achieve improved and reliable results that would allow for more relevant and biologically meaningful results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview Nutrimiromics: Role of microRNAs and Nutrition in Modulating Inflammation and Chronic Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111168
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are
[...] Read more.
Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are usually involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression by binding to a target messenger RNA. They can be controlled by environmental and dietary factors, particularly by isolated nutrients or bioactive compounds, indicating that diet manipulation may hold promise as a therapeutic approach in modulating the risk of chronic diseases. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the influence of nutrients and bioactive compounds on the expression of miRNAs related to inflammation and chronic disease in several models (cell culture, animal models, and human trials). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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