Special Issue "New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis"

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A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shirley Chiang

Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanotechnology; nanomaterials; surface microscopy; surface physics and chemistry; scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM, ultrahigh vacuum); low energy electron microscopy (LEEM); x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS); metals on semiconductors; graphene, adsorption on surfaces; surface phase transitions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A special issue of Nanomaterials will discuss “New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis.” Both the development of new instrumentation and the application of established characterization techniques to the nanometer realm are of interest, as they advance the studies of nanomaterials. Topics can include characterization, analysis, modeling, and modification studies on various types of nanomaterials, including organic, inorganic, hybrid, and biological ones. We invite submissions of original research articles or comprehensive reviews on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Novel characterization techniques applied to nanomaterials
  • Scanning probe microscopy, including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and near-field optical microscopy, of nanomaterials
  • Electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and low energy electron microscopy, of nanomaterials
  • Optical studies, including fluorescence and single-molecule techniques, of nanomaterials
  • X-ray microscopy and spectroscopy of nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles used as imaging probes
  • Modeling nanomaterials
  • Manipulating and modifying nanomaterials

Prof. Dr. Shirley Chiang
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • scanned probe microscopy
  • scanning tunneling microscopy
  • atomic force microscopy
  • near field optical microscopy
  • transmission electron microscopy
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • low energy electron microscopy
  • x-ray microscopy
  • optical spectroscopy using fluorescence and single-molecule techniques
  • nanostructured materials (including organic, inorganic, hybrid, and biological ones)
  • nanoclusters
  • nanoparticles
  • nanotubes
  • graphene
  • quantum dots
  • thin films and coatings

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Strategy for Hydroxide Exclusion in Nanocrystalline Solid-State Metathesis Products
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(3), 317-324; doi:10.3390/nano3030317
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrate a simple strategy to either prevent or enhance hydroxide incorporation in nanocrystalline solid-state metathesis reaction products prepared in ambient environments. As an example, we show that ZnCO3 (smithsonite) or Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite) forms extremely
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We demonstrate a simple strategy to either prevent or enhance hydroxide incorporation in nanocrystalline solid-state metathesis reaction products prepared in ambient environments. As an example, we show that ZnCO3 (smithsonite) or Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite) forms extremely rapidly, in less than two minutes, to form crystalline domains of 11 ±  2 nm and 6 ± 2 nm, respectively. The phase selectivity between these nanocrystalline products is dominated by the alkalinity of the hydrated precursor salts, which may in turn affect the availability of carbon dioxide during the reaction. Thus, unlike traditional aqueous precipitation reactions, our solid-state method offers a way to produce hydroxide-free, nanocrystalline products without active pH control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Electrochemistry and Nano-Electrografting with an Original Combined AFM-SECM
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(2), 303-316; doi:10.3390/nano3020303
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study demonstrates the advantages of the combination between atomic force microscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The combined technique can perform nano-electrochemical measurements onto agarose surface and nano-electrografting of non-conducting polymers onto conducting surfaces. This work was achieved by manufacturing an original Atomic
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This study demonstrates the advantages of the combination between atomic force microscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The combined technique can perform nano-electrochemical measurements onto agarose surface and nano-electrografting of non-conducting polymers onto conducting surfaces. This work was achieved by manufacturing an original Atomic Force Microscopy-Scanning ElectroChemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) electrode. The capabilities of the AFM-SECM-electrode were tested with the nano-electrografting of vinylic monomers initiated by aryl diazonium salts. Nano-electrochemical and technical processes were thoroughly described, so as to allow experiments reproducing. A plausible explanation of chemical and electrochemical mechanisms, leading to the nano-grafting process, was reported. This combined technique represents the first step towards improved nano-processes for the nano-electrografting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Kinetic and Surface Study of Single-Walled Aluminosilicate Nanotubes and Their Precursors
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 126-140; doi:10.3390/nano3010126
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 10 February 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The structural and surface changes undergone by the different precursors that are produced during the synthesis of imogolite are reported. The surface changes that occur during the synthesis of imogolite were determined by electrophoretic migration (EM) measurements, which enabled the identification of the
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The structural and surface changes undergone by the different precursors that are produced during the synthesis of imogolite are reported. The surface changes that occur during the synthesis of imogolite were determined by electrophoretic migration (EM) measurements, which enabled the identification of the time at which the critical precursor of the nanoparticles was generated. A critical parameter for understanding the evolution of these precursors is the isoelectric point (IEP), of which variation revealed that the precursors modify the number of active ≡Al-OH and ≡Si-OH sites during the formation of imogolite. We also found that the IEP is displaced to a higher pH level as a consequence of the surface differentiation that occurs during the synthesis. At the same time, we established that the pH of the reaction (pHrx) decreases with the evolution and condensation of the precursors during aging. Integration of all of the obtained results related to the structural and surface properties allows an overall understanding of the different processes that occur and the products that are formed during the synthesis of imogolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Studies of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Laser Ablation
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 158-172; doi:10.3390/nano3010158
Received: 15 December 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in water, acetonitrile and isopropanol by laser ablation methodologies. The average characteristic (longer) size of the NPs obtained ranged from 3 to 70 nm. 4-Aminobenzebethiol (4-ABT) was chosen as the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe
[...] Read more.
Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in water, acetonitrile and isopropanol by laser ablation methodologies. The average characteristic (longer) size of the NPs obtained ranged from 3 to 70 nm. 4-Aminobenzebethiol (4-ABT) was chosen as the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe molecule to determine the optimum irradiation time and the pH of aqueous synthesis of the laser ablation-based synthesis of metallic NPs. The synthesized NPs were used to evaluate their capacity as substrates for developing more analytical applications based on SERS measurements. A highly energetic material, TNT, was used as the target compound in the SERS experiments. The Raman spectra were measured with a Raman microspectrometer. The results demonstrate that gold and silver NP substrates fabricated by the methods developed show promising results for SERS-based studies and could lead to the development of micro sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition of Novel, Thick and Dense Lattice-Matched Single Buffer Layers Suitable for YBCO Coated Conductors: Preparation and Characterization
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(3), 298-311; doi:10.3390/nano2030298
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 August 2012 / Published: 10 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present the preparation and characterization of cerium doped lanthanum zirconate (LCZO) films and non-stoichiometric lanthanum zirconate (LZO) buffer layers on metallic Ni-5% W substrates using chemical solution deposition (CSD), starting from aqueous precursor solutions. La2Zr2O
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In this work we present the preparation and characterization of cerium doped lanthanum zirconate (LCZO) films and non-stoichiometric lanthanum zirconate (LZO) buffer layers on metallic Ni-5% W substrates using chemical solution deposition (CSD), starting from aqueous precursor solutions. La2Zr2O7 films doped with varying percentages of Ce at constant La concentration (La0.5CexZr1−xOy) were prepared as well as non-stoichiometric La0.5+xZr0.5−xOy buffer layers with different percentages of La and Zr ratios. The variation in the composition of these thin films enables the creation of novel buffer layers with tailored lattice parameters. This leads to different lattice mismatches with the YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconducting layer on top and with the buffer layers or substrate underneath. This possibility of minimized lattice mismatch should allow the use of one single buffer layer instead of the current complicated buffer architectures such as Ni-(5% W)/LZO/LZO/CeO2. Here, single, crack-free LCZO and non-stoichiometric LZO layers with thicknesses of up to 140 nm could be obtained in one single CSD step. The crystallinity and microstructure of these layers were studied by XRD, and SEM and the effective buffer layer action was studied using XPS depth profiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Varied Cleaning Methods on Ni-5% W Substrate for Dip-Coating of Water-based Buffer Layers: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(3), 251-267; doi:10.3390/nano2030251
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work describes various combinations of cleaning methods involved in the preparation of Ni-5% W substrates for the deposition of buffer layers using water-based solvents. The substrate has been studied for its surface properties using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contaminants in the
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This work describes various combinations of cleaning methods involved in the preparation of Ni-5% W substrates for the deposition of buffer layers using water-based solvents. The substrate has been studied for its surface properties using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contaminants in the substrates have been quantified and the appropriate cleaning method was chosen in terms of contaminants level and showing good surface crystallinity to further consider them for depositing chemical solution-based buffer layers for Y1Ba2Cu3Oy (YBCO) coated conductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characteristics of SiOx Coated Carbon Nanotubes with High Surface Area
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(2), 206-216; doi:10.3390/nano2020206
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 8 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An easy method to synthesize SiOx coated carbon nanotubes (SiOx-CNT) through thermal decomposition of polycarbomethylsilane adsorbed on the surface of CNTs is reported. Physical properties of SiOx-CNT samples depending on various Si contents and synthesis conditions are examined
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An easy method to synthesize SiOx coated carbon nanotubes (SiOx-CNT) through thermal decomposition of polycarbomethylsilane adsorbed on the surface of CNTs is reported. Physical properties of SiOx-CNT samples depending on various Si contents and synthesis conditions are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen isotherm, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Morphology of the SiOx-CNT appears to be perfectly identical to that of the pristine CNT. It is confirmed that SiOx is formed in a thin layer of approximately 1 nm thickness over the surface of CNTs. The specific surface area is significantly increased by the coating, because thin layer of SiOx is highly porous. The surface properties such as porosity and thickness of SiOx layers are found to be controlled by SiOx contents and heat treatment conditions. The preparation method in this study is to provide useful nano-hybrid composite materials with multi-functional surface properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)
Open AccessArticle A New Method for Characterization of Natural Zeolites and Organic Nanostructure Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 79-91; doi:10.3390/nano2010079
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to study and develop an economical solution to environmental pollution in water, a wide variety of materials have been investigated. Natural zeolites emerge from that research as the best in class of this category. Zeolites are natural materials which are relatively
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In order to study and develop an economical solution to environmental pollution in water, a wide variety of materials have been investigated. Natural zeolites emerge from that research as the best in class of this category. Zeolites are natural materials which are relatively abundant and non biodegradable, economical and serve to perform processes of environmental remediation. This paper contains a full description of a new method to characterize the superficial properties of natural zeolites of exotic provenience (Caribbean Islets) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM works with the simplicity of the optical microscope and the high resolution typical of a transmission electron microscope (TEM). If the sample is conductive, structural information of mesoporous material is obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), otherwise the sample has to be processed through the grafitation technique, but this procedure induces errors of topography. Therefore, the existing AFM method, to observe zeolite powders, is made in a liquid cell-head scanner. This work confirms that it is possible to use an ambient air-head scanner to obtain a new kind of microtopography. Once optimized, this new method will allow investigation of organic micelles, a very soft nanostructure of cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB), upon an inorganic surface such as natural zeolites. The data also demonstrated some correlation between SEM microphotographies and AFM 3D images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)

Review

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Open AccessReview Porous Copolymer Resins: Tuning Pore Structure and Surface Area with Non Reactive Porogens
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(2), 163-186; doi:10.3390/nano2020163
Received: 3 May 2012 / Revised: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, the preparation of porous copolymer resin (PCR) materials via suspension polymerization with variable properties are described by tuning the polymerization reaction, using solvents which act as porogens, to yield microporous, mesoporous, and macroporous materials. The porogenic properties of solvents are
[...] Read more.
In this review, the preparation of porous copolymer resin (PCR) materials via suspension polymerization with variable properties are described by tuning the polymerization reaction, using solvents which act as porogens, to yield microporous, mesoporous, and macroporous materials. The porogenic properties of solvents are related to traditional solubility parameters which yield significant changes in the surface area, porosity, pore volume, and morphology of the polymeric materials. The mutual solubility characteristics of the solvents, monomer units, and the polymeric resins contribute to the formation of porous materials with tunable pore structures and surface areas. The importance of the initiator solubility, surface effects, the temporal variation of solvent composition during polymerization, and temperature effects contribute to the variable physicochemical properties of the PCR materials. An improved understanding of the factors governing the mechanism of formation for PCR materials will contribute to the development and design of versatile materials with tunable properties for a wide range of technical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)

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