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Special Issue "Green and Sustainable Solvents"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giancarlo Cravotto

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco and NIS-Centre forNanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces, University of Turin, Via P.Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: green chemistry; process intensification; green extraction; enabling technologies (ultrasound, microwaves, hydrodynamic cavitation, ball milling, flow chemistry); sustainable chemical processes
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andrioletti Bruno

Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bâtiment Lederer, 69622-Villeurbanne cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: green chemistry; synthesis; organometallic chemistry; biomass valorization; catalysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ideal solvent should address a number of requirements, including suitable physical and chemical properties, health safety, and a low environmental impact addressing regulatory concerns. Moreover, since 2007, solvents have been regulated at the European level under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation, known as REACH. In addition to intrinsic green properties and production from renewable resources, solvents sustainability also requires recovery procedures and reuse. Industry and academia have shifted their focus towards developing new bio-based solvents that are environmentally-friendly, as well as several combination on natural deep eutectic solvents. In the quest to achieve sustainability, leading solvent manufacturers have been collaborating with biotechnology firms to manufacture such greener solvents. This Special Issue is aimed at reporting recent advances in the field, and the new routes for green solvents toward industrial applications, highlighting, whenever possible, comparative aspects with classic organic solvents.

Prof. Dr. Giancarlo Cravotto
Prof. Dr. Andrioletti Bruno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green solvents
  • Bio-based solvents
  • Sustainable solvents
  • Extraction
  • Chemical processing.
  • Green solvent synthesis
  • Green solvent design
  • Uses
  • Extraction
  • Environmental impact

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Application of Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bamboo Leaves
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092309
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Ionic liquids (ILs), known as environmentally benign “green” solvents, were developed as an optimal solvent for the green extraction and separation field. In this paper, an ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE) of flavonoids (FVs) from bamboo leaves of Phyllostachys heterocycla was developed for
[...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (ILs), known as environmentally benign “green” solvents, were developed as an optimal solvent for the green extraction and separation field. In this paper, an ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE) of flavonoids (FVs) from bamboo leaves of Phyllostachys heterocycla was developed for the first time. First, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim] Br), with the best extraction efficiency, was selected from fifteen ionic liquids with diverse structure, like carbon chains or anions. Then, the influencing parameters of ionic liquid (IL) concentration, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic power, were investigated by single factor tests, and further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). In the optimization experiment, the best conditions were 1.5 mol/L [BMIM]Br aqueous solution, liquid-solid ratio 41 mL/g, ultrasonic time 90 min, and ultrasonic power 300 W. Furthermore, the microstructures of bamboo leaves and the recovery of FVs and [BMIM]Br were also studied. Therefore, this simple, green and effective IL-UAE method has potentiality for the extraction of FVs from bamboo leaves for the large-scale operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle Ionic Liquids: Efficient Media for the Lipase-Catalyzed Michael Addition
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092154
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been regarded as ideal media for non-aqueous bio-catalysis. In this work, the synthesis of warfarin by the lipase-catalyzed Michael addition in IL media and the parameters that affected the warfarin yield were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the
[...] Read more.
Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been regarded as ideal media for non-aqueous bio-catalysis. In this work, the synthesis of warfarin by the lipase-catalyzed Michael addition in IL media and the parameters that affected the warfarin yield were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the chemical structures of the ILs were a major factor for influencing the warfarin yield. The ILs containing the NTf2 anion were suitable reaction media due to the high chemical stability of this anion. The incorporation of the hydroxyl group on the IL cation significantly improved the lipase activity due to the H2O-mimicking property of this group. The lipase activity decreased by increasing the alkyl chain length on the IL cation due to the non-polar domain formation of the IL cation at the active site entrance of lipase. The ILs and lipase could be reused no less than five times without reduction in the warfarin yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Transesterification of Lactic Acid Oligomers with Ethanol, a Way to Anhydrous Ethyl Lactate: A Kinetic Study
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082044
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
A new method for the preparation of anhydrous ethyl ester of lactic acid was studied. The selected method is based on catalytic transesterification of lactic acid oligomers, which were prepared for this purpose by autocatalytic oligomerization of lactic acid. In this work, a
[...] Read more.
A new method for the preparation of anhydrous ethyl ester of lactic acid was studied. The selected method is based on catalytic transesterification of lactic acid oligomers, which were prepared for this purpose by autocatalytic oligomerization of lactic acid. In this work, a kinetic model for the case of catalytic alcoholysis of oligoesters was derived assuming a first-order reaction and equimolar content of reactants in the reaction mixture. The model makes it possible to obtain the values of the reaction rate and equilibrium constants and the equilibrium alcohol concentration by regression analysis at one time. The model was verified by measuring the rate of consumption of ethanol over the time at various reaction temperatures with anhydrous FeCl3 as the catalyst. The reaction was studied at overpressure under autogenous conditions in the temperature range of 100–180 °C. For the catalyst concentration of 1 mol %, the activation energy value was 64.35 kJ·mol−1. The dependence of equilibrium composition and rate constant on the temperature was obtained. The derived model is generally applicable to all first-order equilibrium reactions. The presumption is that the forward and reverse reactions are of the same order and have the same stoichiometry and equivalent amounts of reactants at the beginning of the reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Optimisation of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) for Biobutanol Production Using Pretreated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081944
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
This study was conducted in order to optimise simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for biobutanol production from a pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Temperature, initial pH, cellulase loading and substrate concentration were screened using one factor
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted in order to optimise simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for biobutanol production from a pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Temperature, initial pH, cellulase loading and substrate concentration were screened using one factor at a time (OFAT) and further statistically optimised by central composite design (CCD) using the response surface methodology (RSM) approach. Approximately 2.47 g/L of biobutanol concentration and 0.10 g/g of biobutanol yield were obtained after being screened through OFAT with 29.55% increment (1.42 fold). The optimised conditions for SSF after CCD were: temperature of 35 °C, initial pH of 5.5, cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g-substrate and substrate concentration of 5% (w/v). This optimisation study resulted in 55.95% increment (2.14 fold) of biobutanol concentration equivalent to 3.97 g/L and biobutanol yield of 0.16 g/g. The model and optimisation design obtained from this study are important for further improvement of biobutanol production, especially in consolidated bioprocessing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle Environmentally Friendly Approach to Knoevenagel Condensation of Rhodanine in Choline Chloride: Urea Deep Eutectic Solvent and QSAR Studies on Their Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081897
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
A series of rhodanine derivatives was synthesized in the Knoevenagel condensation of rhodanine and different aldehydes using choline chloride:urea (1:2) deep eutectic solvent. This environmentally friendly and catalyst free approach was very effective in the condensation of rhodanine with commercially available aldehydes, as
[...] Read more.
A series of rhodanine derivatives was synthesized in the Knoevenagel condensation of rhodanine and different aldehydes using choline chloride:urea (1:2) deep eutectic solvent. This environmentally friendly and catalyst free approach was very effective in the condensation of rhodanine with commercially available aldehydes, as well as the ones synthesized in our laboratory. All rhodanine derivatives were subjected to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity investigation and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed to elucidate their structure-activity relationship. The best multiple linear QSAR model demonstrate a stability in the internal validation and Y-randomization (R2 = 0.81; F = 24.225; Q2loo = 0.72; R2Yscr = 0.148). Sphericity of the molecule, ratio of symmetric atoms enhanced atomic mass along the principle axes in regard to total number of atoms in molecule, and 3D distribution of the atoms higher electronegativity (O, N, and S) in molecules are important characteristic for antioxidant ability of rhodanine derivatives. Molecular docking studies were carried out in order to explain in silico antioxidant studies, a specific protein tyrosine kinase (2HCK). The binding interactions of the most active compound have shown strong hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions with the target protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Catalyzed Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols and Diarylmethanes in Water
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081883
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
We report the highly efficient and chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols catalyzed by sodium copper chlorophyllin in water, producing corresponding arylcarbonyl compounds. Importantly, the catalytic system exhibits a wide substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. Moreover, secondary alcohols and even diarylmethanes were
[...] Read more.
We report the highly efficient and chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols catalyzed by sodium copper chlorophyllin in water, producing corresponding arylcarbonyl compounds. Importantly, the catalytic system exhibits a wide substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. Moreover, secondary alcohols and even diarylmethanes were smoothly oxidized to the desired aryl ketones with excellent yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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