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Special Issue "Photothermal Agents in Therapy"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joan Estelrich

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avda. Joan XXIII, 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 934024559
Interests: colloids; micelles; layer-by-layer; liposomes; magnetic particles; drug delivery; magnetic hyperthermia; magnetic photothermia
Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Antònia Busquets

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avda. Joan XXIII, 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: colloidal systems; liposomes; Langmuir-Blodgett films; membrane models; drug delivery; surfaces

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal treatments are based on driving the normal temperature of the body (or part of it) at higher values in a controlled manner. Controlled temperature increments have a positive effect on patients with an ongoing disease, such as cancer. Thermal treatments include two techniques, namely hyperthermia and thermal ablation. The difference between these is the threshold of temperature: in hyperthermia, the temperature rises to 42 oC, while in thermal ablation, the temperature exceeds 42 oC. Thermal ablation is the basis of photothermal therapy (PTT). For this therapy, it is necessary to induce a temperature increase in the tumor, while keeping the temperature of the surrounding tissue at a normal level. This increase is achieved by irradiating the zone of the tumor with an energy source, mostly using a laser. However, when lesions that are close to large vascular structure need be treated, a part of the heat generated by the energy source is transferred into the blood flow, leading to a reduction of the potency of the thermal effect. To increase the efficacy and selectivity of photothermal ablation, it is necessary to introduce substances into the tumor to convert the absorbed the light into heat. Such substances are called photothermal agents (PA). To date, a vast array of nanoparticles capable of efficient heat generation under illumination with laser radiation have been developed.

We invite researchers to contribute original and review articles regarding the impact of PA on PTT. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Dyes
  • Metal oxide nanoparticles
  • Metallic nanostructures
  • Carbon-based nanomaterials
  • Nanoscale metal chalcogenides
  • Transition metal hidroalcogenide nanostructures

Prof. Dr. Joan Estelrich
Dr. Maria Antònia Busquets
Guest Editors


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Photothermal platforms
  • Nanoparticles
  • Near-infrared light-responsive nanomaterials
  • Thermal ablation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Gold Nanoparticles as a Photothermal Agent in Cancer Therapy: The Thermal Ablation Characteristic Length
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061316
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
In cancer therapy, the thermal ablation of diseased cells by embedded nanoparticles is one of the known therapies. It is based on the absorption of the energy of the illuminating laser by nanoparticles. The resulting heating of nanoparticles kills the cell where these
[...] Read more.
In cancer therapy, the thermal ablation of diseased cells by embedded nanoparticles is one of the known therapies. It is based on the absorption of the energy of the illuminating laser by nanoparticles. The resulting heating of nanoparticles kills the cell where these photothermal agents are embedded. One of the main constraints of this therapy is preserving the surrounding healthy cells. Therefore, two parameters are of interest. The first one is the thermal ablation characteristic length, which corresponds to an action distance around the nanoparticles for which the temperature exceeds the ablation threshold. This critical geometric parameter is related to the expected conservation of the body temperature in the surroundings of the diseased cell. The second parameter is the temperature that should be reached to achieve active thermal agents. The temperature depends on the power of the illuminating laser, on the size of nanoparticles and on their physical properties. The purpose of this paper is to propose behavior laws under the constraints of both the body temperature at the boundary of the cell to preserve surrounding cells and an acceptable range of temperature in the target cell. The behavior laws are deduced from the finite element method, which is able to model aggregates of nanoparticles. We deduce sensitivities to the laser power and to the particle size. We show that the tuning of the temperature elevation and of the distance of action of a single nanoparticle is not significantly affected by variations of the particle size and of the laser power. Aggregates of nanoparticles are much more efficient, but represent a potential risk to the surrounding cells. Fortunately, by tuning the laser power, the thermal ablation characteristic length can be controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photothermal Agents in Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Photothermal Effectiveness of Magnetite Nanoparticles: Dependence upon Particle Size Probed by Experiment and Simulation
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051234
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The photothermal effect of nanoparticles has proven efficient for driving diverse physical and chemical processes; however, we know of no study addressing the dependence of efficacy on nanoparticle size. Herein, we report on the photothermal effect of three different sizes (5.5 nm, 10
[...] Read more.
The photothermal effect of nanoparticles has proven efficient for driving diverse physical and chemical processes; however, we know of no study addressing the dependence of efficacy on nanoparticle size. Herein, we report on the photothermal effect of three different sizes (5.5 nm, 10 nm and 15 nm in diameter) of magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) driving the decomposition of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). We find that the chemical effectiveness of the photothermal effect is positively correlated with particle volume. Numerical simulations of the photothermal heating of PPC supports this observation, showing that larger particles are able to heat larger volumes of PPC for longer periods of time. The increased heating duration is likely due to increased heat capacity, which is why the volume of the particle functions as a ready guide for the photothermal efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photothermal Agents in Therapy)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Photothermal Therapy
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071567
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photothermal therapy is a kind of therapy based on increasing the temperature of tumoral cells above 42 °C. To this aim, cells must be illuminated with a laser, and the energy of the radiation is transformed in heat. Usually, the employed radiation belongs
[...] Read more.
Photothermal therapy is a kind of therapy based on increasing the temperature of tumoral cells above 42 °C. To this aim, cells must be illuminated with a laser, and the energy of the radiation is transformed in heat. Usually, the employed radiation belongs to the near-infrared radiation range. At this range, the absorption and scattering of the radiation by the body is minimal. Thus, tissues are almost transparent. To improve the efficacy and selectivity of the energy-to-heat transduction, a light-absorbing material, the photothermal agent, must be introduced into the tumor. At present, a vast array of compounds are available as photothermal agents. Among the substances used as photothermal agents, gold-based compounds are one of the most employed. However, the undefined toxicity of this metal hinders their clinical investigations in the long run. Magnetic nanoparticles are a good alternative for use as a photothermal agent in the treatment of tumors. Such nanoparticles, especially those formed by iron oxides, can be used in combination with other substances or used themselves as photothermal agents. The combination of magnetic nanoparticles with other photothermal agents adds more capabilities to the therapeutic system: the nanoparticles can be directed magnetically to the site of interest (the tumor) and their distribution in tumors and other organs can be imaged. When used alone, magnetic nanoparticles present, in theory, an important limitation: their molar absorption coefficient in the near infrared region is low. The controlled clustering of the nanoparticles can solve this drawback. In such conditions, the absorption of the indicated radiation is higher and the conversion of energy in heat is more efficient than in individual nanoparticles. On the other hand, it can be designed as a therapeutic system, in which the heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles after irradiation with infrared light can release a drug attached to the nanoparticles in a controlled manner. This form of targeted drug delivery seems to be a promising tool of chemo-phototherapy. Finally, the heating efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles can be increased if the infrared radiation is combined with an alternating magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photothermal Agents in Therapy)
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Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Graphene based hybrid nanomaterials as efficient photothermal agents for cancer therapy
Article type: Review

Title: Enhancement of Cancer Cell Damage Efficiency through Cell Perforation and Preheating in Using Photothermal and Photodynamic Effects with Surface Plasmon Resonance of Gold Nanoring
Author: Chih-Chung Yang

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