Special Issue "CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances"

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A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tuncel M. Yegulalp (Website)

Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, 500 West 120th St., New York, NY 10027, USA
Fax: +1 212 854 7081
Interests: mining engineering/operations research; statistics; carbon capture; zero emission power plants; methane hydrates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the most important challenges of the 21st century is the limiting or reducing the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. While one of the challenges is the capture of greenhouse gases (primarily CO2) from point and distributed sources, the other is the development of method and techniques to sequester CO2. Each alternative proposed in literature and practiced in a very limited scale has its own shortcomings for the long-term or permanent storage. The idea of mineral carbonation emerges to be the only alternative for permanent solution. This special issue will focus on the recent scientific and technical advances towards development of technically and economically feasible methods, related issues and problems.

Prof. Dr. Tuncel M. Yegulalp
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • CO2 sequestration
  • ultramafic rocks
  • serpentinite carbonation
  • aqueous mineral carbonation
  • chelating agents
  • natural carbonation processes

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle N2 and CO2 Adsorption by Soils with High Kaolinite Content from San Juan Amecac, Puebla, México
Minerals 2016, 6(3), 73; doi:10.3390/min6030073
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
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Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered one of the most important greenhouse gases in the study of climate change. CO2 adsorption was studied using the gas chromatography technique, while the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were employed for processing isotherm [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered one of the most important greenhouse gases in the study of climate change. CO2 adsorption was studied using the gas chromatography technique, while the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were employed for processing isotherm data in the temperature range of 473–573 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated from the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. Moreover, the thermodynamic properties ΔG, ΔU, and ΔS were evaluated from the adsorption isotherms of Langmuir using the Van’t Hoff Equation. The four soil samples were recollected from San Juan Amecac, Puebla, Mexico, and their morphologies were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption at 77 K. The SJA4 soil has a crystalline Kaolinite phase, which is one of its non-metallic raw materials, and N2 isotherms allowed for the determination of pore size distributions and specific surface areas of soil samples. The Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) distribution of pore diameters was bimodal with peaks at 1.04 and 3.7 nm, respectively. CO2 adsorption showed that the SJA1 soil afforded a higher amount of adsorbed CO2 in the temperature range from 453 to 573 K followed by SJA4 and finally SJA2, classifying this process as exothermic physisorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Dioxide Sorption Isotherm Study on Pristine and Acid-Treated Olivine and Its Application in the Vacuum Swing Adsorption Process
Minerals 2015, 5(2), 259-275; doi:10.3390/min5020259
Received: 26 December 2014 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 4 May 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the potential of pristine and acid-treated olivine as a substrate for CO2 capture using a vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) process from the gas-solid phase. The experiments tested the isotherm of pure CO2 adsorption with partial pressure from [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the potential of pristine and acid-treated olivine as a substrate for CO2 capture using a vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) process from the gas-solid phase. The experiments tested the isotherm of pure CO2 adsorption with partial pressure from 10−5 to 1 bar at ambient temperature. The CO2 adsorption capacity and actual expected working capacity (EWC) curves of pristine and acid-treated olivine were determined. Isotherm studies predict that physisorption dominates chemisorptions at ambient temperatures. The adsorption capacity enhances with the increase of specific surface area, pore volume, and the appearance of Mg complexed on the mineral’s surface. Actual EWC studies showed that acid-treated olivine is an adsorbent choice for the VSA process, due to enhanced CO2 adsorption capacities compared to olivine and the potential for 100% recovery of CO2 during the regeneration process. Pristine olivine is not suitable for the VSA process because of bad regenerability, but it can be used in capturing and sequestering dilute CO2 in process streams. Our research reveals excellent viability for the application of VSA in the area of CO2 capture using pristine olivine and acid-treated olivine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications
Minerals 2014, 4(3), 746-757; doi:10.3390/min4030746
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 8 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents [...] Read more.
A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle Field Application of Accelerated Mineral Carbonation
Minerals 2014, 4(2), 191-207; doi:10.3390/min4020191
Received: 11 January 2014 / Revised: 15 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally, coal-fired power plants are the largest industrial source of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 emissions from flue gas have potential for direct mineralization with electrostatic precipitator fly ash particles in the field. Demonstration scale accelerated mineral carbonation (AMC) studies [...] Read more.
Globally, coal-fired power plants are the largest industrial source of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 emissions from flue gas have potential for direct mineralization with electrostatic precipitator fly ash particles in the field. Demonstration scale accelerated mineral carbonation (AMC) studies were conducted at the Jim Bridger Power Plant, a large coal fired power plant located in Wyoming, USA. AMC produces kinetically rapid conditions for increased rates of mineralization of CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) on fly ash particles. Control and AMC reacted fly ash particles were investigated for: change in carbon (expressed as CaCO3), sulfur (expressed as SO42−), and mercury (Hg) contents; topology and surface chemical composition by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis; chemical distribution of trace elements; and aqueous mineral solubility by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Results of the AMC process show an increase in C, S, and Hg on AMC fly ash particles suggesting that multiple pollutants from flue gas can be removed through this direct mineral carbonation process. Results also suggest that the AMC process shifts soluble trace elements in fly ash to less leachable mineral fractions. The results of this study can provide insight into potential successful field implementation of AMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Salinity on the Microbial Diversity in Lithifying Microbial Mats
Minerals 2014, 4(1), 145-169; doi:10.3390/min4010145
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) are rising at an accelerated rate resulting in changes in the pH and carbonate chemistry of the world’s oceans. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact these changing environmental conditions have on carbonate-depositing microbial [...] Read more.
Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) are rising at an accelerated rate resulting in changes in the pH and carbonate chemistry of the world’s oceans. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact these changing environmental conditions have on carbonate-depositing microbial communities. Here, we examine the effects of elevated CO2, three times that of current atmospheric levels, on the microbial diversity associated with lithifying microbial mats. Lithifying microbial mats are complex ecosystems that facilitate the trapping and binding of sediments, and/or the precipitation of calcium carbonate into organosedimentary structures known as microbialites. To examine the impact of rising CO2 and resulting shifts in pH on lithifying microbial mats, we constructed growth chambers that could continually manipulate and monitor the mat environment. The microbial diversity of the various treatments was compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The results indicated that elevated CO2 levels during the six month exposure did not profoundly alter the microbial diversity, community structure, or carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats; however some key taxa, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Deltasulfobacterales, were enriched. These results suggest that some carbonate depositing ecosystems, such as the microbialites, may be more resilient to anthropogenic-induced environmental change than previously thought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
Open AccessArticle Application of Double-Difference Seismic Tomography to Carbon Sequestration Monitoring at the Aneth Oil Field, Utah
Minerals 2013, 3(4), 352-366; doi:10.3390/min3040352
Received: 3 September 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
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Abstract
Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. [...] Read more.
Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrangement. In tests involving artificially modeled ray paths through a velocity model, ideal event and receiver arrangements clearly show velocity reductions. When incorporating the unfavorable event and station locations from the Aneth Unit into synthetic models, the ability to detect velocity reductions is greatly diminished. Using the actual, recorded travel times, the Aneth Unit results show differences between a synthetic baseline model and the travel times obtained in the field, but the differences do not clearly indicate a region of injected CO2. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage, and a more detailed baseline velocity model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Strategizing Carbon-Neutral Mines: A Case for Pilot Projects
Minerals 2014, 4(2), 399-436; doi:10.3390/min4020399
Received: 4 March 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization that should be used to offset carbon emissions generated by the mining industry. Although passive carbonation is occurring at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond [...] Read more.
Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization that should be used to offset carbon emissions generated by the mining industry. Although passive carbonation is occurring at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond and Mount Keith nickel mines, there remains untapped potential for sequestering CO2 within these mine wastes. There is the potential to accelerate carbonation to create economically viable, large-scale CO2 fixation technologies that can operate at near-surface temperature and atmospheric pressure. We review several relevant acceleration strategies including: bioleaching of magnesium silicates; increasing the supply of CO2 via heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics; and biologically induced carbonate precipitation, as well as enhancing passive carbonation through tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources. Scenarios for pilot scale projects are proposed with the aim of moving towards carbon-neutral mines. A financial incentive is necessary to encourage the development of these strategies. We recommend the use of a dynamic real options pricing approach, instead of traditional discounted cash-flow approaches, because it reflects the inherent value in managerial flexibility to adapt and capitalize on favorable future opportunities in the highly volatile carbon market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation: Challenges and Advances)

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