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Special Issue "Nano-photonic Devices"

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A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Robert Magnusson

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: theory and experiment of periodic nanostructures; nanolithography; nano-photonics and nanoelectronics; nanoplasmonics; optical bio- and chemical sensors; nanofabrication; integrated nanoscale devices; diffractive optics; optical filters; thin-film optics; waveguide optics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide, nanotechnology is progressing rapidly, motivated by a plethora of economically important applications in medicine, energy, and communications. The field of nano-photonics, being an integral part of nanotechnology, is similarly progressing expeditiously. Accordingly, we hereby announce a special issue addressing advances in modeling, fabrication, and characterization of nano-photonic devices. Such devices have typically critical feature size on the order of ~1-500 nm and process or design control on a nanoscale. We invite submission of papers on passive and active nano-photonic devices fashioned with dielectrics, semiconductors, or metals. Example topics include subwavelength elements, photonic bandgap structures, plasmonic devices, silicon nano-photonic devices and systems, diffractive elements, nano-photonic biosensors, nanocavity devices, quantum-dot elements, photovoltaic cells, nano-opto-electromechanical systems (NOEMS), resonance-based devices, waveguide devices, slow-light elements, nano-antennas, nanostructured lasers, nanostructured detectors, and others.  Related novel systems concepts and application proposals are acceptable contributions.  Moreover, innovative methods in nanolithography, nanopatterning, thin-film deposition, device characterization, etc., are of interest.

Prof. Dr. Robert Magnusson
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • nano-photonics
  • nanopatterning
  • nanoplasmonics
  • nanolithography
  • active and passive devices
  • nanoscale systems
  • nano-photonics applications

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Strong Electro-Absorption in GeSi Epitaxy on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)
Micromachines 2012, 3(2), 345-363; doi:10.3390/mi3020345
Received: 15 March 2012 / Revised: 6 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated the selective epitaxial growth of GeSi bulk material on silicon-on-insulator substrates by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. We employed AFM, SIMS, and Hall measurements, to characterize the GeSi heteroepitaxy quality. Optimal growth conditions have been identified to achieve low defect
[...] Read more.
We have investigated the selective epitaxial growth of GeSi bulk material on silicon-on-insulator substrates by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. We employed AFM, SIMS, and Hall measurements, to characterize the GeSi heteroepitaxy quality. Optimal growth conditions have been identified to achieve low defect density, low RMS roughness with high selectivity and precise control of silicon content. Fabricated vertical p-i-n diodes exhibit very low dark current density of 5 mA/cm2 at −1 V bias. Under a 7.5 V/µm E-field, GeSi alloys with 0.6% Si content demonstrate very strong electro-absorption with an estimated effective ∆α/α around 3.5 at 1,590 nm. We compared measured ∆α/α performance to that of bulk Ge. Optical modulation up to 40 GHz is observed in waveguide devices while small signal analysis indicates bandwidth is limited by device parasitics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Azimuthally Varying Guided Mode Resonance Filters
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 180-193; doi:10.3390/mi3010180
Received: 1 February 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New and novel sensing schemes require optical functions with unconventional spatial light distributions, as well as complex spectral functionality. Micro-optical elements have shown some flexibility in their ability to spatially encode phase information using surface relief dielectrics. In this paper, we present a
[...] Read more.
New and novel sensing schemes require optical functions with unconventional spatial light distributions, as well as complex spectral functionality. Micro-optical elements have shown some flexibility in their ability to spatially encode phase information using surface relief dielectrics. In this paper, we present a novel optical component that exploits the properties of optically resonant structures to make an azimuthally spatially varying spectral filter. The dispersive properties are quite unique with an angular resonance shift of 28 Deg/nm. This device is fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard micro-electronic fabrication technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effective Permittivity for FDTD Calculation of Plasmonic Materials
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 168-179; doi:10.3390/mi3010168
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (670 KB)
Abstract
We present a new effective permittivity (EP) model to accurately calculate surface plasmons (SPs) using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational representation of physical structures with curved interfaces causes inherent errors in FDTD calculations, especially when the numerical grid is coarse. Conventional
[...] Read more.
We present a new effective permittivity (EP) model to accurately calculate surface plasmons (SPs) using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational representation of physical structures with curved interfaces causes inherent errors in FDTD calculations, especially when the numerical grid is coarse. Conventional EP models improve the errors, but they are not effective for SPs because the SP resonance condition determined by the original permittivity is changed by the interpolated EP values. We perform FDTD simulations using the proposed model for an infinitely-long silver cylinder and gold sphere, and the results are compared with Mie theory. Our model gives better accuracy than the conventional staircase and EP models for SPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Integrated Biophotonics with CYTOP
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 114-125; doi:10.3390/mi3010114
Received: 24 January 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe how the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP can be advantageously used as a waveguide cladding material in integrated optical circuits suitable for applications in integrated biophotonics. The unique refractive index of CYTOP (n = 1.34) enables the cladding material to be well index-matched
[...] Read more.
We describe how the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP can be advantageously used as a waveguide cladding material in integrated optical circuits suitable for applications in integrated biophotonics. The unique refractive index of CYTOP (n = 1.34) enables the cladding material to be well index-matched to an optically probed sample solution. Furthermore, ultra-high index contrast waveguides can be fabricated, using conventional optical polymers as waveguide core materials, offering a route to large-scale integration of optical functions on a single chip. We discuss applications of this platform to evanescent-wave excitation fluorescence microscopy, passive and/or thermo-electrically-controlled on-chip light manipulation, on-chip light generation, and direct integration with microfluidic circuits through low-temperature bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Cylindrical Resonator Utilizing a Curved Resonant Grating as a Cavity Wall
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 101-113; doi:10.3390/mi3010101
Received: 26 December 2011 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A thin-film grating on a curved substrate functions as a highly reflective and wavelength sensitive mirror for a diverging wave that has the same curvature as the substrate. In this paper we propose a cylindrical cavity surrounded by a curved resonant grating wall,
[...] Read more.
A thin-film grating on a curved substrate functions as a highly reflective and wavelength sensitive mirror for a diverging wave that has the same curvature as the substrate. In this paper we propose a cylindrical cavity surrounded by a curved resonant grating wall, and describe its resonance characteristics. Through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation we have clarified that this type of cavity supports two resonance modes: one is confined by Fresnel reflection and the other by resonance reflection of the wall. We have also demonstrated that the latter mode exhibits a Q factor several orders of magnitude higher than that of the former mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Surface Plasmon Excitation and Localization by Metal-Coated Axicon Prism
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 55-61; doi:10.3390/mi3010055
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 February 2012 / Published: 8 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Collimated Gaussian beams are efficiently localized at the apex of a metal-coated axicon prism by surface plasmon excitations. We observed the light scattered at the apex and the light reflected by the prism. Intense scattered light was observed with the radial polarization incidence.
[...] Read more.
Collimated Gaussian beams are efficiently localized at the apex of a metal-coated axicon prism by surface plasmon excitations. We observed the light scattered at the apex and the light reflected by the prism. Intense scattered light was observed with the radial polarization incidence. Further, each incidence of the radial, azimuthal, and linear polarizations provided field distributions of bright and dark intensities in the reflected images according to the surface plasmon excitation. We have demonstrated that surface plasmon waves are excited at the sides of the prism in the Kretschmann configuration and that they converge to its apex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Design of an Angle Detector for Laser Beams Based on Grating Coupling
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 36-44; doi:10.3390/mi3010036
Received: 24 December 2011 / Revised: 21 January 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel angle detector for laser beams is designed in this paper. It takes advantage of grating coupling to couple the incident light into a slab waveguide; and, the incident light’s angle can be determined by reading the outputs of light detectors within
[...] Read more.
A novel angle detector for laser beams is designed in this paper. It takes advantage of grating coupling to couple the incident light into a slab waveguide; and, the incident light’s angle can be determined by reading the outputs of light detectors within the waveguide. This device offers fast-responding on-chip detection of laser beam’s angle. Compared to techniques based on quadrant photodiodes or lateral effect photodiodes, the device in this paper has far greater detectable range (up to a few degrees, to be specific). Performance of the laser angle detector in this paper is demonstrated by finite-difference-time-domain simulations. Numerical results show that, the detectable angle range can be adjusted by several design parameters and can reach [−4°, 4°]. The laser beam angle detector in this paper is expected to find various applications such as ultra-fast optical interconnects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Arbitrary Super Surface Modes Bounded by Multilayered Metametal
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 45-54; doi:10.3390/mi3010045
Received: 30 December 2011 / Revised: 25 January 2012 / Accepted: 27 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dispersion of the fundamental super mode confined along the boundary between a multilayer metal-insulator (MMI) stack and a dielectric coating is theoretically analyzed and compared to the dispersion of surface waves on a single metal-insulator (MI) boundary. Based on the classical Kretschmann
[...] Read more.
The dispersion of the fundamental super mode confined along the boundary between a multilayer metal-insulator (MMI) stack and a dielectric coating is theoretically analyzed and compared to the dispersion of surface waves on a single metal-insulator (MI) boundary. Based on the classical Kretschmann setup, the MMI system is experimentally tested as an anisotropic material to exhibit plasmonic behavior and a candidate of “metametal” to engineer the preset surface plasmon frequency of conventional metals for optical sensing applications. The conditions to obtain artificial surface plasmon frequency are thoroughly studied, and the tuning of surface plasmon frequency is verified by electromagnetic modeling and experiments. The design rules drawn in this paper would bring important insights into applications such as optical lithography, nano-sensing and imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Plasmonic Nanostructures Prepared by Soft UV Nanoimprint Lithography and Their Application in Biological Sensing
Micromachines 2012, 3(1), 21-27; doi:10.3390/mi3010021
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 21 December 2011 / Accepted: 28 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We prepared high-density plasmonic nanostructures on a glass substrate. By using soft UV nanoimprint lithography, gold nanodisks with a diameter of 65 nm were obtained on an area of 1 mm2. We tested these gold nanosensors in the biotin/streptavidin system to
[...] Read more.
We prepared high-density plasmonic nanostructures on a glass substrate. By using soft UV nanoimprint lithography, gold nanodisks with a diameter of 65 nm were obtained on an area of 1 mm2. We tested these gold nanosensors in the biotin/streptavidin system to study their selectivity and sensitivity of detection. The prepared gold nanodisks could detect streptavidin at 10 pM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Focusing Light with Curved Guided-Mode Resonance Reflectors
Micromachines 2011, 2(2), 150-156; doi:10.3390/mi2020150
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 14 April 2011 / Published: 28 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Employing numerical simulations, we investigate the possibility of using curved guided-mode resonance (GMR) elements to focus light in reflection. We treat GMR reflectors with a parabolic shape and show that they are capable of focusing light effectively across wavelength bands that extend several
[...] Read more.
Employing numerical simulations, we investigate the possibility of using curved guided-mode resonance (GMR) elements to focus light in reflection. We treat GMR reflectors with a parabolic shape and show that they are capable of focusing light effectively across wavelength bands that extend several hundred nanometers. The spatially infinite reflector model is simulated with a finite-element method, whereas the spatially finite reflector is treated with a finite-difference-time-domain method. The numerical results demonstrate that light intensity at the focal point is 8.6 dB stronger than the incident intensity when the GMR reflector’s size is on the order of 10 wavelengths. The results indicate potential applicability of wideband-focusing devices in electromagnetics and photonics using compact resonance elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Multi-Beam Interference Advances and Applications: Nano-Electronics, Photonic Crystals, Metamaterials, Subwavelength Structures, Optical Trapping, and Biomedical Structures
Micromachines 2011, 2(2), 221-257; doi:10.3390/mi2020221
Received: 14 April 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 27 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (3857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research in recent years has greatly advanced the understanding and capabilities of multi-beam interference (MBI). With this technology it is now possible to generate a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions at the micro- and nano-scale over a large
[...] Read more.
Research in recent years has greatly advanced the understanding and capabilities of multi-beam interference (MBI). With this technology it is now possible to generate a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions at the micro- and nano-scale over a large length/area/volume. These patterns may be used directly or recorded in photo-sensitive materials using multi-beam interference lithography (MBIL) to accomplish subwavelength patterning. Advances in MBI and MBIL and a very wide range of applications areas including nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterials, subwavelength structures, optical trapping, and biomedical structures are reviewed and put into a unified perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-photonic Devices)

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