Special Issue "Radiation Effects in Metals"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Dhriti Bhattacharyya

Senior Scientist, Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW, 2234, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: Radiation effects on materials; Mechanical behaviour of materials; Phase transformations in metallic materials; Materials characterization including TEM, SEM, EBSD; In situ nano- and micro- mechanical testing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-energy radiation involving neutrons, ions, and electromagnetic waves can alter the microstructure and properties of metallic materials in a variety of ways. It is of enormous importance to understand these effects due to many reasons:

(i)                 High throughput nuclear reactors with enhanced efficiency and low levels of nuclear waste can be a part of the solution to the world’s increasing energy needs. The design and construction of such reactors would need a profound theoretical and practical understanding of the effects of high radiation doses on the structure and properties of the materials used for their construction (mostly metallic alloys).

(ii)               Radiation can be used in modifying the surface of various metals to create layered structures with different functional properties. It can also be used to transmute a fraction of the atoms in bulk material in a random but uniform distribution, thus altering the properties of the material for certain applications.

(iii)             Radiation by high-energy ion and electron fluxes, plasma, solar electromagnetic fluxes, etc., can affect the properties of the shells of spacecraft and also those of instruments within them, when landing in or traversing regions with high radiation levels. Therefore, the reliability of these parts may be compromised by exposure to radiation.

We invite papers reporting significant original research, as well as reviews on radiation effects in metals alloys and metallic multilayers, including experiments using both ion beam and neutron irradiation. The subjects of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Effects of radiation on (a) microstructure, (b) mechanical properties of metallic materials
  • Methods of characterizing radiation effects, including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, SANS, synchrotron radiation, X-ray diffraction, etc.

Theoretical calculations and simulations of radiation effects on materials, including molecular dynamics, ab initio, Monte Carlo, finite elements, etc.

Dr. Dhriti Bhattacharyya
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Heavy Ion Irradiation Dosage on the Hardness of SA508-IV Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel
Metals 2017, 7(1), 25; doi:10.3390/met7010025
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
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Abstract
Specimens of the SA508-IV reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel, containing 3.26 wt. % Ni and just 0.041 wt. % Cu, were irradiated at 290 °C to different displacement per atom (dpa) with 3.5 MeV Fe ions (Fe2+). Microstructure observation and nano-indentation
[...] Read more.
Specimens of the SA508-IV reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel, containing 3.26 wt. % Ni and just 0.041 wt. % Cu, were irradiated at 290 °C to different displacement per atom (dpa) with 3.5 MeV Fe ions (Fe2+). Microstructure observation and nano-indentation hardness measurements were carried out. The Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM) of nano-indentation was used to obtain the indentation depth profile of nano-hardness. The curves showed a maximum nano-hardness and a plateau damage near the surface of the irradiated samples, attributed to different hardening mechanisms. The Nix-Gao model was employed to analyze the nano-indentation test results. It was found that the curves of nano-hardness versus the reciprocal of indentation depth are bilinear. The nano-hardness value corresponding to the inflection point of the bilinear curve may be used as a parameter to describe the ion irradiation effect. The obvious entanglement of the dislocations was observed in the 30 dpa sample. The maximum nano-hardness values show a good linear relationship with the square root of the dpa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Metals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Temperature-Dependent Helium Ion-Beam Mixing in an Amorphous SiOC/Crystalline Fe Composite
Metals 2016, 6(11), 261; doi:10.3390/met6110261
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature dependent He-irradiation-induced ion-beam mixing between amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe was examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The Fe marker layer (7.2 ± 0.8 nm) was placed in between two amorphous SiOC layers
[...] Read more.
Temperature dependent He-irradiation-induced ion-beam mixing between amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and crystalline Fe was examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The Fe marker layer (7.2 ± 0.8 nm) was placed in between two amorphous SiOC layers (200 nm). The amount of ion-beam mixing after 298, 473, 673, 873, and 1073 K irradiation was investigated. Both TEM and RBS results showed no ion-beam mixing between Fe and SiOC after 473 and 673 K irradiation and a very trivial amount of ion-beam mixing (~2 nm) after 298 K irradiation. At irradiation temperatures higher than 873 K, the Fe marker layer broke down and RBS could no longer be used to quantitatively examine the amount of ion mixing. The results indicate that the Fe/SiOC nanocomposite is thermally stable and tends to demix in the temperature range from 473 to 673 K. For application of this composite structure at temperatures of 873 K or higher, layer stability is a key consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of X-rays Radiation on AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldings with AISI 316L Filler Material: A Study of Resistance and Pitting Corrosion Behavior
Metals 2016, 6(5), 102; doi:10.3390/met6050102
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article investigates the effect of low-level ionizing radiation, namely X-rays, on the micro structural characteristics, resistance, and corrosion resistance of TIG-welded joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel made using AISI 316L filler rods. The welds were made in two different environments:
[...] Read more.
This article investigates the effect of low-level ionizing radiation, namely X-rays, on the micro structural characteristics, resistance, and corrosion resistance of TIG-welded joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel made using AISI 316L filler rods. The welds were made in two different environments: natural atmospheric conditions and a closed chamber filled with inert argon gas. The influence of different doses of radiation on the resistance and corrosion characteristics of the welds is analyzed. Welded material from inert Ar gas chamber TIG showed better characteristics and lesser irradiation damage effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Metals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Overview of Intergranular Fracture of Neutron Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steels
Metals 2017, 7(10), 392; doi:10.3390/met7100392
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Austenitic stainless steels are normally ductile and exhibit deep dimples on fracture surfaces. These steels can, however, exhibit brittle intergranular fracture under some circumstances. The occurrence of intergranular fracture in the irradiated steels is briefly reviewed based on limited literature data. The data
[...] Read more.
Austenitic stainless steels are normally ductile and exhibit deep dimples on fracture surfaces. These steels can, however, exhibit brittle intergranular fracture under some circumstances. The occurrence of intergranular fracture in the irradiated steels is briefly reviewed based on limited literature data. The data are sorted according to the irradiation temperature. Intergranular fracture may occur in association with a high irradiation temperature and void swelling. At low irradiation temperature, the steels can exhibit intergranular fracture at low or even at room temperatures during loading in air and in high temperature water (~300 °C). This paper deals with the similarities and differences for IG fractures and discusses the mechanisms involved. The intergranular fracture occurrence at low temperatures might be correlated with decohesion or twinning and strain martensite transformation in local narrow areas around grain boundaries. The possibility of a ductile-to-brittle transition is also discussed. In case of void swelling higher than 3%, quasi-cleavage at low temperature might be expected as a consequence of ductile-to-brittle fracture changes with temperature. Any existence of the change in fracture behavior in the steels of present thermal reactor internals with increasing irradiation dose should be clearly proven or disproven. Further studies to clarify the mechanism are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Metals)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Effect of the Concentration of Cupric oxide by Composite PEO on Thermal Radiation and Corrosion Resistance Performances
Authors: Donghyun Kim, Dahye Sunga, Woojoong Jung, Dohyung Kim, Wonsub Chung
Abstract: We examined the thermal radiation and corrosion resistance performances during composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process as a function of concentration of cupric oxide (CuO) particles. The electrical conductivity was increased with the increasing of concentration of CuO particles, and Cu-O bonding was observed on the surface of oxide film by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron microscopy. The thickness of Cu-oxides was linearly increased when the concentration of CuO particles were added. Thermal radiation performance was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at 200 oC, the highest value was 0.906 at 0.6 g/L of CuO. In addition, electrochemical analysis was performed, such as potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with electrical circuits. A dense coating film revealed that improved corrosion resistance was obtained when added proper ratio of CuO particles in electrolyte.
Keywords: Composite, Cupric oxide, Emissivity, Corrosion, Plasma electrolytic oxidation

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