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Special Issue "Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. To Ngai

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: colloidal particle; interfacial science; polymer and soft materials
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Syuji Fujii

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering Osaka Institute of Technology 5-16-1, Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: synthesis and characterization of polymer-based colloidal particles; particle at interface; particle-stabilized soft dispersed systems (emulsion, foam, liquid marble and dry liquid); design and synthesis of functional materials based on biomimetic technology; synthesis of element-block polymer materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Particle-stabilized emulsions, today referred to as Pickering/Ramsden emulsions, are vital in many fields, including personal care products, foods, pharmaceuticals, and oil recovery. The exploitation of these Pickering emulsions for the manufacture of new functional materials has also recently become the subject of intense investigation. While much progress has been made over the past decade, Pickering emulsion still remains a rich topic since many aspects of their behavior have yet to be investigated. The present “Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials” Special Issue aims to bring together research and review papers pertaining to the recent developments in the design, fabrication, and application of Pickering emulsions. The themes include, but are not limited to:

1. Interactions of colloidal particles confined at fluid interfaces

2. Pickering emulsion-based polymerization

3. Interfacial assembly and emulsion stabilization

4. Rheology of particle laden interfaces and Pickering emulsions

5. Functional materials templated from Pickering emulsions

We believe this Special Issue will serve as a platform for researchers to share their exciting works and, in the long run this will attract further attention and interest in the innovative development of this important and promising area.

It is our great pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, short communication, and review are welcome.

Dr. To Ngai
Dr. Syuji Fujii
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    Particle-stabilized emulsions
•    Particle interaction at the interface
•    Pickering emulsion-based polymerization
•    Emulsion stabilization
•    Interfacial assembly
•    Rheology of interfacial particles and Pickering emulsions
•    Functional materials

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste
Materials 2016, 9(9), 791; doi:10.3390/ma9090791
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication High-Surface-Area, Emulsion-Templated Carbon Foams by Activation of polyHIPEs Derived from Pickering Emulsions
Materials 2016, 9(9), 776; doi:10.3390/ma9090776
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon foams displaying hierarchical porosity and excellent surface areas of >1400 m2/g can be produced by the activation of macroporous poly(divinylbenzene). Poly(divinylbenzene) was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion.
[...] Read more.
Carbon foams displaying hierarchical porosity and excellent surface areas of >1400 m2/g can be produced by the activation of macroporous poly(divinylbenzene). Poly(divinylbenzene) was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion. By the addition of KOH, chemical activation of the materials is induced during carbonization, producing Pickering-emulsion-templated carbon foams, or carboHIPEs, with tailorable macropore diameters and surface areas almost triple that of those previously reported. The retention of the customizable, macroporous open-cell structure of the poly(divinylbenzene) precursor and the production of a large degree of microporosity during activation leads to tailorable carboHIPEs with excellent surface areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide
Materials 2016, 9(9), 731; doi:10.3390/ma9090731
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 20 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO) with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared
[...] Read more.
A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO) with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13) and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM). In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi) was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication Assembly and Rearrangement of Particles Confined at a Surface of a Droplet, and Intruder Motion in Electro-Shaken Particle Films
Materials 2016, 9(8), 679; doi:10.3390/ma9080679
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Manipulation of particles at the surface of a droplet can lead to the formation of structures with heterogeneous surfaces, including patchy colloidal capsules or patchy particles. Here, we study the assembly and rearrangement of microparticles confined at the surface of oil droplets. These
[...] Read more.
Manipulation of particles at the surface of a droplet can lead to the formation of structures with heterogeneous surfaces, including patchy colloidal capsules or patchy particles. Here, we study the assembly and rearrangement of microparticles confined at the surface of oil droplets. These processes are driven by electric-field-induced hydrodynamic flows and by ‘electro-shaking’ the colloidal particles. We also investigate the motion of an intruder particle in the particle film and present the possibility of segregating the surface particles. The results are expected to be relevant for understanding the mechanism for particle segregation and, eventually, lead to the formation of new patchy structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Geometric and Chemical Anisotropy of Janus Ellipsoids on Janus Boundary Mismatch at the Fluid–Fluid Interface
Materials 2016, 9(8), 664; doi:10.3390/ma9080664
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 6 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the geometric and chemical factors of nonspherical Janus particles (i.e., Janus ellipsoids) with regard to the pinning and unpinning behaviors of the Janus boundary at the oil–water interface using attachment energy numerical calculations. The geometric factors were characterized by aspect ratio
[...] Read more.
We investigated the geometric and chemical factors of nonspherical Janus particles (i.e., Janus ellipsoids) with regard to the pinning and unpinning behaviors of the Janus boundary at the oil–water interface using attachment energy numerical calculations. The geometric factors were characterized by aspect ratio (AR) and location of the Janus boundary (α) separating the polar and apolar regions of the particle. The chemical factor indicated the supplementary wettability (β) of the two sides of the particle with identical deviations of apolarity and polarity from neutral wetting. These two factors competed with each other to determine particle configurations at the interface. In general, the critical value of β (βc) required to preserve the pinned configuration was inversely proportional to the values of α and AR. From the numerical calculations, the empirical relationship of the parameter values of Janus ellipsoids was found; that is, λ = Δ β c / Δ α 0.61 A R 1.61 . Particularly for the Janus ellipsoids with AR > 1, the βc value is consistent with the boundary between the tilted only and the tilted equilibrium/upright metastable region in their configuration phase diagram. We believe that this work performed at the single particle level offers a fundamental understanding of the manipulation of interparticle interactions and control of the rheological properties of particle-laden interfaces when particles are used as solid surfactants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quaternized Cellulose Hydrogels as Sorbent Materials and Pickering Emulsion Stabilizing Agents
Materials 2016, 9(8), 645; doi:10.3390/ma9080645
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quaternized (QC) and cross-linked/quaternized (CQC) cellulose hydrogels were prepared by cross-linking native cellulose with epichlorohydrin (ECH), with subsequent grafting of glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC). Materials characterization via carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (CHN) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/13
[...] Read more.
Quaternized (QC) and cross-linked/quaternized (CQC) cellulose hydrogels were prepared by cross-linking native cellulose with epichlorohydrin (ECH), with subsequent grafting of glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC). Materials characterization via carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (CHN) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/13C solid state NMR spectroscopy provided supportive evidence of the hydrogel synthesis. Enhanced thermal stability of the hydrogels was observed relative to native cellulose. Colloidal stability of octanol and water mixtures revealed that QC induces greater stabilization over CQC, as evidenced by the formation of a hexane–water Pickering emulsion system. Equilibrium sorption studies with naphthenates from oil sands process water (OSPW) and 2-naphthoxy acetic acid (NAA) in aqueous solution revealed that CQC possess higher affinity relative to QC with the naphthenates. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the sorption capacity of CQC for OSPW naphthenates was 33.0 mg/g and NAA was 69.5 mg/g. CQC displays similar affinity for the various OSPW naphthenate component species in aqueous solution. Kinetic uptake of NAA at variable temperature, pH and adsorbent dosage showed that increased temperature favoured the uptake process at 303 K, where Qm = 76.7 mg/g. Solution conditions at pH 3 or 9 had a minor effect on the sorption process, while equilibrium was achieved in a shorter time at lower dosage (ca. three-fold lower) of hydrogel (100 mg vs. 30 mg). The estimated activation parameters are based on temperature dependent rate constants, k1, which reveal contributions from enthalpy-driven electrostatic interactions. The kinetic results indicate an ion-based associative sorption mechanism. This study contributes to a greater understanding of the adsorption and physicochemical properties of cellulose-based hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Pickering Emulsion-Based Marbles for Cellular Capsules
Materials 2016, 9(7), 572; doi:10.3390/ma9070572
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient
[...] Read more.
The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil) was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid)) and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Transition Behaviors of Configurations of Colloidal Particles at a Curved Oil-Water Interface
Materials 2016, 9(3), 138; doi:10.3390/ma9030138
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the transition behaviors of colloidal arrangements confined at a centro-symmetrically curved oil-water interface. We found that assemblies composed of several colloidal particles at the curved interface exhibit at least two unique patterns that can be attributed to two factors: heterogeneity of
[...] Read more.
We studied the transition behaviors of colloidal arrangements confined at a centro-symmetrically curved oil-water interface. We found that assemblies composed of several colloidal particles at the curved interface exhibit at least two unique patterns that can be attributed to two factors: heterogeneity of single-colloid self-potential and assembly kinetics. The presence of the two assembly structures indicates that an essential energy barrier between the two structures exists and that one of the structures is kinetically stable. This energy barrier can be overcome via external stimuli (e.g., convection and an optical force), leading to dynamic transitions of the assembly patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion
Materials 2016, 9(11), 903; doi:10.3390/ma9110903
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role
[...] Read more.
Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Controlling Pickering Emulsion Destabilisation: A Route to Fabricating New Materials by Phase Inversion
Materials 2016, 9(8), 626; doi:10.3390/ma9080626
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to review the key findings about how particle-stabilised (or Pickering) emulsions respond to stress and break down. Over the last ten years, new insights have been gained into how particles attached to droplet (and bubble) surfaces alter
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to review the key findings about how particle-stabilised (or Pickering) emulsions respond to stress and break down. Over the last ten years, new insights have been gained into how particles attached to droplet (and bubble) surfaces alter the destabilisation mechanisms in emulsions. The conditions under which chemical demulsifiers displace, or detach, particles from the interface were established. Mass transfer between drops and the continuous phase was shown to disrupt the layers of particles attached to drop surfaces. The criteria for causing coalescence by applying physical stress (shear or compression) to Pickering emulsions were characterised. These findings are being used to design the structures of materials formed by breaking Pickering emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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