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Special Issue "Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Harald F. Krug

Empa – Swiss Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, St. Gallen, CH-9014 and NanoCASE GmbH, Shareholder and Consultant and University of Bern, Switzerland
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Interests: biological mechanisms; environmentally relevant pollutants, technical chemicals and materials; nanotoxicology
Guest Editor
Dr. Dana Kühnel

Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research−UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ecotoxicology and toxicokinetics of engineered nanomaterials
Guest Editor
Dr. Anita Jemec Kokalj

Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicology of engineered nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are a diverse group of materials that find applications in a great variety of products, ranging from cosmetics to paints, from sports equipment to electronics, or from soil remediation to nanomedicine. Depending on the type of product and the integration of the nanomaterial into it, release of engineered nanomaterials into the environment is inevitable. Hence, this Special Issue deals with the release, fate and effects that nanomaterials elicit in the different environmental compartments, including the technosphere (e.g., behavior during waste water treatment or handling of solid waste). We invite contributions considering all types of man-made nanomaterials that are appropriately characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties.

During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published trying to find adverse effects of ENM on human and environment. Commonly, unrealistically high exposure concentrations were tested to proof an effect. The publications regarding nanotoxicity with very alarming conclusions are attractive and often considered publication worthy, while those reporting no adverse effects are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes. For this reason in this issue we specifically welcome authors to submit also “No-effect Studies”. Also studies using concentrations of ENM close to realistic or predicted environmental levels are invited.

We invite full papers, communications and reviews covering one or several of the topics included in (or related to) the keywords below.

Prof. Harald F. Krug
Dr. Dana Kühnel
Dr. Anita Jemec Kokalj
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • engineered nanomaterials (ENM)

  • environmental release and fate

  • pathways of toxicity (PoT) and adverse outcome pathways (AOP) of ENM

  • uptake and food-chain transfer

  • co-contaminants and mixture effects

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Toxicity Evaluation of Individual and Mixtures of Nanoparticles Based on Algal Chlorophyll Content and Cell Count
Materials 2018, 11(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010121
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
The toxic effects of individual and binary mixtures of five metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated based on changes in two endpoints of algal growth: the cell count and chlorophyll content. Various effects were observed according to the concentration tested and type of
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The toxic effects of individual and binary mixtures of five metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated based on changes in two endpoints of algal growth: the cell count and chlorophyll content. Various effects were observed according to the concentration tested and type of NPs, and there were no significant differences in findings for the two endpoints. In general, ZnO NPs caused the greatest inhibition of algal growth, and Fe2O3 NPs the least. The EC50 for ZnO was 2.0 mg/L for the cell count and 2.6 mg/L for the chlorophyll content, and it was 76 and 90 mg/L, respectively, for Fe2O3. The EC50 values were in the order ZnO > NiO > CuO > TiO2 > Fe2O3. Subsequently, the effects of 30 binary mixture combinations on the chlorophyll content were evaluated. Comparisons were made between the observed and the expected toxicities calculated based on the individual NP toxicities. Overall, additive action (67%) was mainly observed, followed by antagonistic (16.5%) and synergistic (16.5%) actions. These results suggest that environmental exposure to NP mixtures may cause toxicity levels similar to the sum of those of the constituent NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Magnetic Zinc Oxide Nanotubes for Phenol Adsorption: Mechanism Modeling
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10121355
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Considering the great impact of a material’s surface area on adsorption processes, hollow nanotube magnetic zinc oxide with a favorable surface area of 78.39 m2/g was fabricated with the assistance of microwave technology in the presence of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)
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Considering the great impact of a material’s surface area on adsorption processes, hollow nanotube magnetic zinc oxide with a favorable surface area of 78.39 m2/g was fabricated with the assistance of microwave technology in the presence of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizing agent followed by sonic precipitation of magnetite nano-particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs identified the nanotubes’ morphology in the synthesized material with an average aspect ratio of 3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis verified the combination of magnetite material with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the prepared material. The immobilization of magnetite nanoparticles on to ZnO was confirmed using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The sorption affinity of the synthesized magnetic ZnO nanotube for phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was examined as a function of various processing factors. The degree of acidity of the phenolic solution has great influence on the phenol sorption process on to magnetic ZnO. The calculated value of ΔH0 designated the endothermic nature of the phenol uptake process on to the magnetic ZnO nanotubes. Mathematical modeling indicated a combination of physical and chemical adsorption mechanisms of phenolic compounds on to the fabricated magnetic ZnO nanotubes. The kinetic process correlated better with the second-order rate model compared to the first-order rate model. This result indicates the predominance of the chemical adsorption process of phenol on to magnetic ZnO nanotubes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Biological Fate of Silver Nanoparticles from a Methodological Perspective
Materials 2018, 11(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060957
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
We analyzed the performance and throughput of currently available analytical techniques for quantifying body burden and cell internalization/distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Our review of Ag NP biological fate data shows that most of the evidence gathered for Ag NPs body burden
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We analyzed the performance and throughput of currently available analytical techniques for quantifying body burden and cell internalization/distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Our review of Ag NP biological fate data shows that most of the evidence gathered for Ag NPs body burden actually points to total Ag and not only Ag NPs. On the other hand, Ag NPs were found inside the cells and tissues of some organisms, but comprehensive explanation of the mechanism(s) of NP entry and/or in situ formation is usually lacking. In many cases, the methods used to detect NPs inside the cells could not discriminate between ions and particles. There is currently no single technique that would discriminate between the metals species, and at the same time enable localization and quantification of NPs down to the cellular level. This paper serves as an orientation towards selection of the appropriate method for studying the fate of Ag NPs in line with their properties and the specific question to be addressed in the study. Guidance is given for method selection for quantification of NP uptake, biodistribution, precise tissue and cell localization, bioaccumulation, food chain transfer and modeling studies regarding the optimum combination of methods and key factors to consider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Recent Advances towards the Development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships for Metallic Nanomaterials
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10091013
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gathering required information in a fast and inexpensive way is essential for assessing the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The extension of conventional (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) approach to nanotoxicology, i.e., nano-(Q)SARs, is a possible solution. The preliminary attempts of correlating ENMs’ characteristics
[...] Read more.
Gathering required information in a fast and inexpensive way is essential for assessing the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The extension of conventional (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) approach to nanotoxicology, i.e., nano-(Q)SARs, is a possible solution. The preliminary attempts of correlating ENMs’ characteristics to the biological effects elicited by ENMs highlighted the potential applicability of (Q)SARs in the nanotoxicity field. This review discusses the current knowledge on the development of nano-(Q)SARs for metallic ENMs, on the aspects of data sources, reported nano-(Q)SARs, and mechanistic interpretation. An outlook is given on the further development of this frontier. As concluded, the used experimental data mainly concern the uptake of ENMs by different cell lines and the toxicity of ENMs to cells lines and Escherichia coli. The widely applied techniques of deriving models are linear and non-linear regressions, support vector machine, artificial neural network, k-nearest neighbors, etc. Concluded from the descriptors, surface properties of ENMs are seen as vital for the cellular uptake of ENMs; the capability of releasing ions and surface redox properties of ENMs are of importance for evaluating nanotoxicity. This review aims to present key advances in relevant nano-modeling studies and stimulate future research efforts in this quickly developing field of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials)
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