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Materials 2018, 11(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010121

Toxicity Evaluation of Individual and Mixtures of Nanoparticles Based on Algal Chlorophyll Content and Cell Count

1
Groundwater Department, Geologic Environment Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 34132, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungman University, Kyungbuk 38541, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The toxic effects of individual and binary mixtures of five metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated based on changes in two endpoints of algal growth: the cell count and chlorophyll content. Various effects were observed according to the concentration tested and type of NPs, and there were no significant differences in findings for the two endpoints. In general, ZnO NPs caused the greatest inhibition of algal growth, and Fe2O3 NPs the least. The EC50 for ZnO was 2.0 mg/L for the cell count and 2.6 mg/L for the chlorophyll content, and it was 76 and 90 mg/L, respectively, for Fe2O3. The EC50 values were in the order ZnO > NiO > CuO > TiO2 > Fe2O3. Subsequently, the effects of 30 binary mixture combinations on the chlorophyll content were evaluated. Comparisons were made between the observed and the expected toxicities calculated based on the individual NP toxicities. Overall, additive action (67%) was mainly observed, followed by antagonistic (16.5%) and synergistic (16.5%) actions. These results suggest that environmental exposure to NP mixtures may cause toxicity levels similar to the sum of those of the constituent NPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: algal growth; chlorophyll content; cell count; nanoparticles; toxicity algal growth; chlorophyll content; cell count; nanoparticles; toxicity
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Ko, K.-S.; Koh, D.-C.; Kong, I.C. Toxicity Evaluation of Individual and Mixtures of Nanoparticles Based on Algal Chlorophyll Content and Cell Count. Materials 2018, 11, 121.

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