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Special Issue "Dental Biomaterials 2017"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laurence J Walsh

School of Dentistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: applications of advanced dental biomaterials and physical technologies (such as lasers) to improve clinical practice; biomaterials; biophotonics; materials sciences; clinical microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is growing interest in the use of alkaline dental materials, which are able to improve clinical outcomes in dentistry and which go beyond the concept of a simple dental material, which fills a space in a tooth or lines a cavity. These biologically-active materials are in the form of alkaline fluids, pastes and dental cements. This Special Issue on biomaterials used in dentistry focuses on alkaline materials used in endodontics and restorative dentistry, which can induce hard tissue formation and exert antimicrobial actions.

Prof. Dr. Laurence J Walsh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioceramics
  • mineral trioxide aggregate
  • calcium silicates

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Residual Endodontic Filling Material after Post Space Preparation: A Confocal Microscopic Study
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1333; doi:10.3390/ma10111333
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w) sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used
[...] Read more.
This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w) sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™), or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™) or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™). Brown (#3) ParaPost™ drills were used at 600 rpm with a torque setting of 3 N cm−1 for 2 min to remove 5 mm of the root filling. Roots were embedded and coronal slices examined by confocal microscopy, with the perimeter of the drill channel divided into clean, unclean and non-accessible regions. The choice of material affects cleanliness, with MTA being the most difficult and calcium hydroxide cement the easiest to remove. With epoxy resin-based sealers, almost half of the accessible canal walls remained coated with remnants of sealer after post space preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Calcium Phosphate Cement with Antimicrobial Properties and Radiopacity as an Endodontic Material
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1256; doi:10.3390/ma10111256
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have several advantages for use as endodontic materials, and such advantages include ease of use, biocompatibility, potential hydroxyapatite-forming ability, and bond creation between the dentin and appropriate filling materials. However, unlike tricalcium silicate (CS)-based materials, CPCs do not have
[...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have several advantages for use as endodontic materials, and such advantages include ease of use, biocompatibility, potential hydroxyapatite-forming ability, and bond creation between the dentin and appropriate filling materials. However, unlike tricalcium silicate (CS)-based materials, CPCs do not have antibacterial properties. The present study doped a nonwashable CPC with 0.25–1.0 wt % hinokitiol and added 0, 5, and 10 wt % CS. The CPCs with 0.25–0.5 wt % hinokitiol showed appreciable antimicrobial properties without alterations in their working or setting times, mechanical properties, or cytocompatibility. Addition of CS slightly retarded the apatite formation of CPC and the working and setting time was obviously reduced. Moreover, addition of CS dramatically increased the compressive strength of CPC. Doping CS with 5 wt % ZnO provided additional antibacterial effects to the present CPC system. CS and hinokitiol exerted a synergic antibacterial effect, and the CPC with 0.25 wt % hinokitiol and 10 wt % CS (doped with 5 wt % ZnO) had higher antibacterial properties than that of pure CS. The addition of 10 wt % bismuth subgallate doubled the CPC radiopacity. The results demonstrate that hinokitiol and CS can improve the antibacterial properties of CPCs, and they can thus be considered for endodontic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Sealing Ability of Alkaline Endodontic Cements versus Resin Cements
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1228; doi:10.3390/ma10111228
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Penetration of oral bacteria through root fillings leads to their long term failure. Dimensionally stable alkaline cements have been developed. A saliva challenge model was used to compare resistance to bacterial penetration of these alkaline cements to conventional root fillings that combine gutta
[...] Read more.
Penetration of oral bacteria through root fillings leads to their long term failure. Dimensionally stable alkaline cements have been developed. A saliva challenge model was used to compare resistance to bacterial penetration of these alkaline cements to conventional root fillings that combine gutta percha (GP) with epoxy resin sealers. A sample of 140 human roots with single straight canals prepared to standard length and canal size were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Nex MTA or MTAmix), with an alkaline calcium hydroxide hard setting cement (Supercal), or with GP and a resin cement (either AH-Plus or Zirmix). Negative control roots were sealed with wax, while positive controls were left open. The test assemblies were gamma sterilised, then the coronal root face was exposed daily to fresh stimulated human saliva diluted in broth. Bacterial penetration was determined by assessing growth in sterile brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium in contact with the root apex. Using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, in order of performance from highest to lowest: Negative control, Supercal, Nex MTA, Zirmix, MTAmix, GP + AH-Plus, and the positive control. In addition, statistically significant differences were noted between Supercal and AH-Plus, and between the two MTA cements. It can be concluded that alkaline cements, particularly Supercal, can show considerable resistance to bacterial penetration from constant saliva challenge, and provide superior sealing ability in comparison to resin cements. While this property is due mostly to dimensional stability, the release of hydroxide ions could be a contributing factor to impaired bacterial survival, and this aspect should be explored further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Percentage of Voids in the Canal Filling of a Calcium Silicate-Based Sealer and Gutta Percha Cones Using Two Obturation Techniques
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1170; doi:10.3390/ma10101170
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluated the root-filling quality of a calcium silicate-based sealer and gutta percha (GP) cones by measuring the percentage of voids. Twenty artificial molar teeth were divided into two groups: one obturated using the single-cone (SC) technique, and the other using the
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the root-filling quality of a calcium silicate-based sealer and gutta percha (GP) cones by measuring the percentage of voids. Twenty artificial molar teeth were divided into two groups: one obturated using the single-cone (SC) technique, and the other using the continuous wave (CW) technique. Obturation was performed with GP cones and Endoseal MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate, Maruchi, Wonju, Korea). Obturated teeth were scanned using microcomputed tomography, and the percentage of void volume was calculated in the apical and coronal areas. A linear mixed model was used to determine the differences between the two techniques (p < 0.05). The percentage of voids between the filling materials and root canal walls was not significantly different between the two obturation methods (p > 0.05), except for the CW group, which demonstrated a significantly higher void volume in the coronal area of the distal canal (p < 0.05). The percentage of voids inside the filling material was significantly higher in the CW groups for all of the comparisons (p < 0.05), except in the apical area of the distal canal (p > 0.05). The voids between the filling material and canal wall in the apical area were not significantly different between the two techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Electron Beam Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membranes as Compared with Collagen Membranes on Guided Bone Regeneration in Peri-Implant Bone Defects
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1018; doi:10.3390/ma10091018
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polysaccharide produced by some bacteria, and consists of a linear polymer linked by β-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. BC has been developed as a material for tissue regeneration purposes. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resorbable
[...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polysaccharide produced by some bacteria, and consists of a linear polymer linked by β-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. BC has been developed as a material for tissue regeneration purposes. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resorbable electron beam irradiated BC membranes (EI-BCMs) for guided bone regeneration (GBR). The electron beam irradiation (EI) was introduced to control the biodegradability of BC for dental applications. EI-BCMs had higher porosity than collagen membranes (CMs), and had similar wet tensile strengths to CMs. NIH3T3 cell adhesion and proliferation on EI-BCMs were not significantly different from those on CMs (p > 0.05). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histometric analysis in peri-implant dehiscence defects of beagle dogs showed that EI-BCMs were non-significantly different from CMs in terms of new bone area (NBA; %), remaining bone substitute volume (RBA; %) and bone-to-implant contact (BIC; %) (p > 0.05). These results suggest resorbable EI-BCMs can be used as an alternative biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Alkaline Material Effects on Roots of Teeth
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1412; doi:10.3390/ma10121412
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this review was to identify and analyse all studies related to the effects of alkaline materials used in dentistry on roots of teeth. The first part of the review focused on mechanical property alterations of root dentine due to sodium
[...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to identify and analyse all studies related to the effects of alkaline materials used in dentistry on roots of teeth. The first part of the review focused on mechanical property alterations of root dentine due to sodium hypochlorite (SH) used as an irrigant solution based on MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms from a previous study by Pascon et al in 2009. The second part reviewed literature on calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and other alkaline materials used as root canal dressings or filling materials. Additional MeSH terms used included “compressive strength”, “elastic modulus” “flexural strength”, “fracture strength” and “fracture resistance”. The language filter was English. Of the initial 205 articles identified, 49 were included in this review, of which 29 were on SH, 21 on CH/MTA, and 1 relating to both. Many in vitro studies indicated a strong link between reduced mechanical properties of roots of teeth or radicular dentine treated with SH, and when sealers or root fillings with CH- or MTA-based materials were placed in contact with roots or radicular dentine. Recent literature indicates that the association between reduced mechanical properties and alkaline sealers and/or root-filling materials is not as straightforward as previously assumed, and requires further investigation using more valid experimental models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessReview Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1389; doi:10.3390/ma10121389
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the
[...] Read more.
Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessReview Mineral Trioxide Aggregate—A Review of Properties and Testing Methodologies
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1261; doi:10.3390/ma10111261
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) restoratives and MTA sealers are commonly used in endodontics. Commonly referenced standards for testing of MTA are ISO 6876, 9917-1 and 10993. A PubMed search was performed relating to the relevant tests within each ISO and “mineral trioxide aggregate”.
[...] Read more.
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) restoratives and MTA sealers are commonly used in endodontics. Commonly referenced standards for testing of MTA are ISO 6876, 9917-1 and 10993. A PubMed search was performed relating to the relevant tests within each ISO and “mineral trioxide aggregate”. MTA restoratives are typically tested with a mixture of tests from multiple standards. As the setting of MTA is dependent upon hydration, the results of various MTA restoratives and sealers are dependent upon the curing methodology. This includes physical properties after mixing, physical properties after setting and biocompatibility. The tests of flow, film thickness, working time and setting time can be superseded by rheology as it details how MTA hydrates. Physical property tests should replicate physiological conditions, i.e. 37 °C and submerged in physiological solution. Biocompatibility tests should involve immediate placement of samples immediately after mixing rather than being cured prior to placement as this does not replicate clinical usage. Biocompatibility tests should seek to replicate physiological conditions with MTA tested immediately after mixing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
Open AccessReview Aspects of Solvent Chemistry for Calcium Hydroxide Medicaments
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1219; doi:10.3390/ma10101219
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used in endodontics since 1947. Most current calcium hydroxide endodontic pastes use water as the vehicle, which limits the dissolution of calcium hydroxide that can be achieved and, thereby, the maximum pH that can be achieved within the
[...] Read more.
Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used in endodontics since 1947. Most current calcium hydroxide endodontic pastes use water as the vehicle, which limits the dissolution of calcium hydroxide that can be achieved and, thereby, the maximum pH that can be achieved within the root canal system. Using polyethylene glycol as a solvent, rather than water, can achieve an increase in hydroxyl ions release compared to water or saline. By adopting non-aqueous solvents such as the polyethylene glycols (PEG), greater dissolution and faster hydroxyl ion release can be achieved, leading to enhanced antimicrobial actions, and other improvements in performance and biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessReview Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1214; doi:10.3390/ma10101214
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use
[...] Read more.
In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessReview Alkaline Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant and Its Chemical Interactions
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1147; doi:10.3390/ma10101147
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or
[...] Read more.
Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or alternating irrigants can also reduce their ability to clean and disinfect the root canal system of teeth by changing their chemical structure with subsequent loss of the active agent, or by inducing precipitate formation in the root canal system. Precipitates occlude dental tubules, resulting in less penetration of antimicrobials and a loss of disinfection efficacy. Sodium hypochlorite is not only a very reactive oxidizing agent, but is also the most commonly used endodontic irrigant. As such, many interactions occurring between it and other irrigants, chelators and other antimicrobials, may occur. Of particular interest is the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and the chelators EDTA, citric acid and etidronate and between sodium hypochlorite and the antimicrobials chlorhexidine, alexidine, MTAD and octenisept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report Intratubular Biomineralization in a Root Canal Filled with Calcium-Enriched Material over 8 Years
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1388; doi:10.3390/ma10121388
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
This case report describes intratubular biomineralization in root canal, filled with calcium-enriched material after 8 years of clinical maintenance. The schematic findings of dentinal tubules were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The root canal obturation material was
[...] Read more.
This case report describes intratubular biomineralization in root canal, filled with calcium-enriched material after 8 years of clinical maintenance. The schematic findings of dentinal tubules were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The root canal obturation material was closely adapted to root dentin surface, suggesting the possibility of chemical bonding between the two interfaces. SEM and EDS observation of dentinal tubules showed intratubular biomineralized crystal structures with Ca/P ratio in a range of 1.30–2.12, suggesting bioactive capacity of calcium-enriched material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessCase Report Treatment of Severely Resorbed Maxilla Due to Peri-Implantitis by Guided Bone Regeneration Using a Customized Allogenic Bone Block: A Case Report
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1213; doi:10.3390/ma10101213
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this case report is to introduce a customized CAD/CAM freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) block for its use in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures for severely deficient maxillary bones. Additionally, a special newly developed remote incision technique is presented to avoid
[...] Read more.
The objective of this case report is to introduce a customized CAD/CAM freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) block for its use in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures for severely deficient maxillary bones. Additionally, a special newly developed remote incision technique is presented to avoid wound dehiscence. The results show optimal integration behavior of the FDBA block after six months and the formation of new vital bone. Thus, the results of the present case report confirm the use of the customized CAD/CAM bone block for augmentation of complex defects in the maxillary aesthetic zone as a successful treatment concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Hydroxyl Ion Diffusion through Radicular Dentine with Different Formulations of Calcium Hydroxide
Authors:
Paul V. Abbott et al.

Title: pH Changes in Radicular Dentine Associated with Calcium Hydroxide and Corticosteroid:Antibiotic Pastes
Authors:
Paul V. Abbott et al.

Title: Detection and radiographic properties of alkaline materials
Authors: H Benoit et al.

Title: Alkaline material effects on roots of teeth
Authors: S Shetty et al.

Title: Alkaline cements and pulp regeneration
Authors: W Kahler et al.

Title: Histologic evaluation of the reasons for non-healing of the periradicular tissues with mineral trioxide aggregate
Authors: Andreas Bartols et al.

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