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Special Issue "Advances in Cellulosic Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carlos Pascoal Neto

Ciceco, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +351 234 370 089
Interests: wood chemistry; pulp and paper chemistry; pulping and bleaching; bio refineries; cellulose-based materials; composites from renewable resources
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Armando J. D. Silvestre

Ciceco, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: c
Fax: +351 234 370 084
Interests: materials from renewable resources; cellulose; nanofibers; bacterial cellulose; natural polymers; bionanocomposites
Guest Editor
Dr. Carmen S. R. Freire

Ciceco, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +351 234 370 084
Interests: materials from renewable resources; cellulose; nanofibers; bacterial cellulose; natural polymers; bionanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cellulose, due to its natural abundance and unique properties, is undoubtedly one of the most promising renewable raw materials for the large scale production of chemicals, fuels, and materials in a biobased economy. The unique features of cellulose fibers make them one of the most promising resources for the development of a wide range of sustainable and functional materials, with applications such as composites, transparent films, biomedical devices and products packaging, organic electronics, special papers, among many others. In this sense, this special issue is aimed at reporting the most recent developments on cellulose based materials; covering all forms of cellulose, namely plant cellulose, cellulose whiskers, nanofibrillated and bacterial cellulose, as well as the relevant processing techniques (including fiber modification) to produce new and innovative composite (nano)materials, characterization techniques, properties and applications.
For this special issue we will invite authors to publish research articles or comprehensive reviews on the topics referred above.

Prof. Dr. Carlos Pascoal Neto
Prof. Dr. Armando J. D. Silvestre
Dr. Carmen S. R. Freire
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2410-2435; doi:10.3390/ma6062410
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8–2.9) mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %). Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i) they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii) the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii) AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv) the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study), and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties) than similarities (as in some morphological aspects), most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2240-2261; doi:10.3390/ma6062240
Received: 22 January 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to
[...] Read more.
Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young’s Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose
Materials 2013, 6(5), 2043-2058; doi:10.3390/ma6052043
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content) of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of
[...] Read more.
High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content) of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS) of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/FeSO4) generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with White Rot Fungi for Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Materials 2013, 6(5), 2059-2073; doi:10.3390/ma6052059
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 30 April 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
e effects of biological pretreatment on the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), was evaluated after cultivation of white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Trametes versicolor, and a mixed culture of C. subvermispora and T. versicolor. The analysis of chemical compositions indicated
[...] Read more.
e effects of biological pretreatment on the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), was evaluated after cultivation of white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Trametes versicolor, and a mixed culture of C. subvermispora and T. versicolor. The analysis of chemical compositions indicated that C. subvermispora had greater selectivity for lignin degradation with the highest lignin and hemicellulose loss at 45.06% and 42.08%, respectively, and lowest cellulose loss (9.50%) after 90 days among the tested samples. X-ray analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than untreated samples. The sample pretreated by C. subvermispora presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples which might be caused by the selective degradation of amorphous components. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased during the biological pretreatment process. A study on hydrolysis of rubberwood treated with C. subvermispora, T. versicolor, and mixed culture for 90 days resulted in an increased sugar yield of about 27.67%, 16.23%, and 14.20%, respectively, as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%). The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood is a potential raw material for industrial applications and white rot fungus C. subevermispora provides an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of rubberwood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Production and Characterization of a New Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1956-1966; doi:10.3390/ma6051956
Received: 14 February 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the
[...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying induce the appearance of larger pores (circa 1–3 µm in average diameter) in dried BC/PVA membranes. Both types of treatments also affect the permeability of the composite, as assessed by the diffusion coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (900, 8,000, 35,000 and 100,000 Da) across the membranes. Finally, the Young’s modulus of dry pristine BC decreases following PVA incorporation, resulting in a change from 3.5 GPa to 1 GPa and a five-fold loss in tensile strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Electron Beam Irradiation of Cellulosic Materials—Opportunities and Limitations
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1584-1598; doi:10.3390/ma6051584
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 8 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The irradiation of pulp is of interest from different perspectives. Mainly it is required when a modification of cellulose is needed. Irradiation could bring many advantages, such as chemical savings and, therefore, cost savings and a reduction in environmental pollutants. In this account,
[...] Read more.
The irradiation of pulp is of interest from different perspectives. Mainly it is required when a modification of cellulose is needed. Irradiation could bring many advantages, such as chemical savings and, therefore, cost savings and a reduction in environmental pollutants. In this account, pulp and dissociated celluloses were analyzed before and after irradiation by electron beaming. The focus of the analysis was the oxidation of hydroxyl groups to carbonyl and carboxyl groups in pulp and the degradation of cellulose causing a decrease in molar mass. For that purpose, the samples were labeled with a selective fluorescence marker and analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), refractive index (RI), and fluorescence detectors. Degradation of the analyzed substrates was the predominant result of the irradiation; however, in the microcrystalline samples, oxidized cellulose functionalities were introduced along the cellulose chain, making this substrate suitable for further chemical modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Cellulose Perversions
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1377-1390; doi:10.3390/ma6041377
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an
[...] Read more.
Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an off-core line defect disclination, which was present when the fibers were prepared. This permits the mimicking of the shapes found in many systems in the living world, e.g., the tendrils of climbing plants, three to four orders of magnitude larger. In this work, we address the mechanism that is behind the spirals’ and helices’ appearance by recording the trajectories of the fibers toward diverse electrospinning targets. The intrinsic curvature of the system occurs via asymmetric contraction of an internal disclination line, which generates different shrinkages of the material along the fiber. The completely different instabilities observed for isotropic and anisotropic electrospun solutions at the exit of the needle seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the intrinsic curvature of the material is acquired during liquid crystalline sample processing inside the needle. The existence of perversions, which joins left and right helices, is also investigated by using suspended, as well as flat, targets. Possible routes of application inspired from the living world are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Cellulose Film with Enhanced Mechanical Properties in Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidaxolium Chloride (AmimCl)
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1270-1284; doi:10.3390/ma6041270
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
More and more attention has been paid to environmentally friendly bio-based renewable materials as the substitution of fossil-based materials, due to the increasing environmental concerns. In this study, regenerated cellulose films with enhanced mechanical property were prepared via incorporating different plasticizers using ionic
[...] Read more.
More and more attention has been paid to environmentally friendly bio-based renewable materials as the substitution of fossil-based materials, due to the increasing environmental concerns. In this study, regenerated cellulose films with enhanced mechanical property were prepared via incorporating different plasticizers using ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as the solvent. The characteristics of the cellulose films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 13C Solid-state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS NMR) and tensile testing. The results showed that the cellulose films exhibited a homogeneous and smooth surface structure. It was noted that the thermal stability of the regenerated cellulose film plasticized with glycerol was increased compared with other regenerated cellulose films. Furthermore, the incorporation of plasticizers dramatically strengthened the tensile strength and improved the hydrophobicity of cellulose films, as compared to the control sample. Therefore, these notable results exhibited the potential utilization in producing environmentally friendly cellulose films with high performance properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose-Gelatin Films
Materials 2013, 6(3), 782-794; doi:10.3390/ma6030782
Received: 8 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 28 February 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG)) film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG
[...] Read more.
A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG)) film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG film displayed dense and uniform homogeneous structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results demonstrated interactions between the cellulose and gelatin. Incorporation of gelatin into a cellulose nanofiber network resulted in significantly improved optical transparency and water absorption capacity of the films. A significant drop in the mechanical strengths and a decrease in the porosity of the film were observed when the supplement of gelatin was more than 3% (w/v). The BCG films showed no cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment
Materials 2013, 6(1), 314-333; doi:10.3390/ma6010314
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain
[...] Read more.
Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst) was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Wood Degradation during Weathering by Cellulose Crystallinity
Materials 2012, 5(10), 1910-1922; doi:10.3390/ma5101910
Received: 10 September 2012 / Revised: 11 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The degree of crystallinity of cellulose was used for assessing the degradation level of coated and uncoated samples of pine wood after weathering. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measured the changes in the surface crystallinity of cellulose resulting from
[...] Read more.
The degree of crystallinity of cellulose was used for assessing the degradation level of coated and uncoated samples of pine wood after weathering. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measured the changes in the surface crystallinity of cellulose resulting from weathering, both natural and artificial. Both techniques revealed an increase in the crystallinity index (CI) of cellulose when wood was subjected to weathering. An increase in the size of crystallites was also observed by XRD measurements. These results were related to the reduction of the amorphous fractions of wood, and, consequently, to the enrichment of the relative crystalline content. Thanks to FT-IR analysis, the degradation of hemicellulose was observed for uncoated samples after exposure to artificial weathering. The effect of weathering was less evident on coated samples because of the protective action of the coating. A good correlation between the crystallinity indexes obtained from FT-IR and XRD was found. The experimental results proved that the proposed method may be a very useful tool for a rapid and accurate estimation of the degradation level of wood exposed to weathering. This methodology can find application in the field of conservation and restoration of wooden objects or in the industry of wood coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials—A Review
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2747-2767; doi:10.3390/ma6072747
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose is the most important and the most abundant plant natural polymer. It shows a number of interesting properties including those making it attractive as a filler of composite materials with a thermoplastic polymer matrix. Production of such composite materials, meeting the standards
[...] Read more.
Cellulose is the most important and the most abundant plant natural polymer. It shows a number of interesting properties including those making it attractive as a filler of composite materials with a thermoplastic polymer matrix. Production of such composite materials, meeting the standards of green technology, has increased from 0.36 million tons in 2007 to 2.33 million tons in 2012. It is predicted that by 2020 their production will reach 3.45 million tons. Production of biocomposites with lignocellulosic components poses many problems that should be addressed. This paper is a review of the lignocellulosic materials currently used as polymer fillers. First, the many factors determining the macroscopic properties of such composites are described, with particular attention paid to the poor interphase adhesion between the polymer matrix and a lignocellulosic filler and to the effects of cellulose occurrence in polymorphic varieties. The phenomenon of cellulose polymorphism is very important from the point of view of controlling the nucleation abilities of the lignocellulosic filler and hence the mechanical properties of composites. Macroscopic properties of green composites depend also on the parameters of processing which determine the magnitude and range of shearing forces. The influence of shearing forces appearing upon processing the supermolecular structure of the polymer matrix is also discussed. An important problem from the viewpoint of ecology is the possibility of composite recycling which should be taken into account at the design stage. The methods for recycling of the composites made of thermoplastic polymers filled with renewable lignocellulosic materials are presented and discussed. This paper is a review prepared on the basis of currently available literature which describes the many aspects of the problems related to the possibility of using lignocellulosic components for production of composites with polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessReview Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1745-1766; doi:10.3390/ma6051745
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 92 | PDF Full-text (1244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a
[...] Read more.
Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
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Open AccessReview “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications
Materials 2013, 6(3), 738-781; doi:10.3390/ma6030738
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 28 February 2013
Cited by 79 | PDF Full-text (2725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in
[...] Read more.
Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli—and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of “smart” materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)
Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Study of Compositional, Structural and Physical Attributes of Developmental Cotton Fibers
Materials 2013, 6(1), 299-313; doi:10.3390/ma6010299
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 12 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cotton fibers are natural plant products, and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of cellulose in cotton fibers increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural and physical attribute variations among the fibers with shorter and
[...] Read more.
Cotton fibers are natural plant products, and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of cellulose in cotton fibers increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural and physical attribute variations among the fibers with shorter and longer growth periods. This article discusses recent progress in applying the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique to characterize these differences, to discriminate immature fibers from mature fibers, to assess fiber maturity and crystallinity and also to unravel the band assignments in crystalline and amorphous celluloses. The results were achieved through the use of various strategies, including wet chemical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), simple algorithm development, two-dimensional correlation analysis and other independent fiber tests. Of particular interest is that, in general, immature fibers might have the characteristics of less than 21–28 dpa, MIR < 0.58 (in the maturity range of 0 to 1.0) and CIIR < 42% (in the crystallinity range of 0 to 100%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulosic Materials)

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