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The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials—A Review
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Sklodowskiej-Curie 1, Poznan 60-965, Poland
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Received: 19 February 2013; in revised form: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Abstract: Cellulose is the most important and the most abundant plant natural polymer. It shows a number of interesting properties including those making it attractive as a filler of composite materials with a thermoplastic polymer matrix. Production of such composite materials, meeting the standards of green technology, has increased from 0.36 million tons in 2007 to 2.33 million tons in 2012. It is predicted that by 2020 their production will reach 3.45 million tons. Production of biocomposites with lignocellulosic components poses many problems that should be addressed. This paper is a review of the lignocellulosic materials currently used as polymer fillers. First, the many factors determining the macroscopic properties of such composites are described, with particular attention paid to the poor interphase adhesion between the polymer matrix and a lignocellulosic filler and to the effects of cellulose occurrence in polymorphic varieties. The phenomenon of cellulose polymorphism is very important from the point of view of controlling the nucleation abilities of the lignocellulosic filler and hence the mechanical properties of composites. Macroscopic properties of green composites depend also on the parameters of processing which determine the magnitude and range of shearing forces. The influence of shearing forces appearing upon processing the supermolecular structure of the polymer matrix is also discussed. An important problem from the viewpoint of ecology is the possibility of composite recycling which should be taken into account at the design stage. The methods for recycling of the composites made of thermoplastic polymers filled with renewable lignocellulosic materials are presented and discussed. This paper is a review prepared on the basis of currently available literature which describes the many aspects of the problems related to the possibility of using lignocellulosic components for production of composites with polymers.
Keywords: lignocellulosic materials; wood; natural fibres; composites; polymorphs of cellulose; processing and recycling
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MDPI and ACS Style
Paukszta, D.; Borysiak, S. The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials—A Review. Materials 2013, 6, 2747-2767.
Paukszta D, Borysiak S. The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials—A Review. Materials. 2013; 6(7):2747-2767.
Paukszta, Dominik; Borysiak, Slawomir. 2013. "The Influence of Processing and the Polymorphism of Lignocellulosic Fillers on the Structure and Properties of Composite Materials—A Review." Materials 6, no. 7: 2747-2767.