E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Hong Wong

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Imperial College London,Imperial College Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Microstructure characterisation; Concrete petrography; Image analysis; Durability of concrete structures; Mass transport properties; Modelling properties from microstructure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am delighted to announce the forthcoming Special Issue on “Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-Based Materials” in the journal Materials. Imaging techniques are increasingly being used to solve a variety of research questions in the field of cement-based materials. These techniques include optical and fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, computed tomography, confocal microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, radiography, thermography, ultrasonic, radar, scanners, and high-speed imaging, and can offer a great deal of information at different length scales and resolutions. Their full potential is achieved when combined with image analysis, which allows one to capture, process, and extract meaningful quantitative data from images. The versatility of this approach is evident from its diverse range of application in cement and concrete research that include:

•     Characterization of cements, additions, reaction products and aggregates;

•     Analysis of pore structure, cracks, and interfaces;

•     Understanding hydration reactions, mass transport phenomena, aging, and degradation mechanisms;

•     Development of new materials, such as novel binders and admixtures;

•     Identification of concrete constituents and mix proportion;

•     Non-destructive detection of voids, defects, reinforcement, and other sub-surface features;

•     Deformation and strain mapping;

•     Screening for deleterious agents and contaminated materials;

•     Assessment of deteriorated and damaged structures;

•     Development of predictive modeling.

The aim of this Special Issue is to showcase the latest research and advances in this area, particularly on the development of image analysis and processing techniques, and applications to cement-based materials. Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, communications, and discussions are welcomed

Dr. Hong Wong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cement
  • concrete
  • mortar
  • imaging techniques
  • image analysis
  • microscopy
  • microstructure
  • petrography

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessCommunication Evaluation of Microstructure and Transport Properties of Deteriorated Cementitious Materials from Their X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Images
Materials 2016, 9(5), 388; doi:10.3390/ma9050388
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pore structure, tortuosity and permeability are considered key properties of porous materials such as cement pastes to understand their long-term durability performance. Three-dimensional image analysis techniques were used in this study to quantify pore size, effective porosity, tortuosity, and permeability from the X-ray
[...] Read more.
Pore structure, tortuosity and permeability are considered key properties of porous materials such as cement pastes to understand their long-term durability performance. Three-dimensional image analysis techniques were used in this study to quantify pore size, effective porosity, tortuosity, and permeability from the X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of deteriorated pastes that were subjected to accelerated leaching test. X-ray microtomography is a noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique which has been recently gaining attention for material characterization. Coupled with 3D image analysis, the digitized pore can be extracted and computational simulation can be applied to the pore network to measure relevant microstructure and transport properties. At a spatial resolution of 0.50 μm, the effective porosity (ψe) was found to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.33. The characteristic pore size (d) using a local thickness algorithm was found to be in the range of 3 to 7 μm. The geometric tortuosity (τg) based on a 3D random walk simulation in the percolating pore space was found to be in the range of 2.00 to 7.45. The water permeability values (K) using US NIST Permeability Stokes Solver range from an order of magnitudes of 10−14 to 10−17 m2. Indications suggest that as effective porosity increases, the geometric tortuosity increases and the permeability decreases. Correlation among these microstructure and transport parameters is also presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Neutron Radiography Based Visualization and Profiling of Water Uptake in (Un)cracked and Autonomously Healed Cementitious Materials
Materials 2016, 9(5), 311; doi:10.3390/ma9050311
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given their low tensile strength, cement-based materials are very susceptible to cracking. These cracks serve as preferential pathways for corrosion inducing substances. For large concrete infrastructure works, currently available time-consuming manual repair techniques are not always an option. Often, one simply cannot reach
[...] Read more.
Given their low tensile strength, cement-based materials are very susceptible to cracking. These cracks serve as preferential pathways for corrosion inducing substances. For large concrete infrastructure works, currently available time-consuming manual repair techniques are not always an option. Often, one simply cannot reach the damaged areas and when making those areas accessible anyway (e.g., by redirecting traffic), the economic impacts involved would be enormous. Under those circumstances, it might be useful to have concrete with an embedded autonomous healing mechanism. In this paper, the effectiveness of incorporating encapsulated high and low viscosity polyurethane-based healing agents to ensure (multiple) crack healing has been investigated by means of capillary absorption tests on mortar while monitoring the time-dependent water ingress with neutron radiography. Overall visual interpretation and water front/sample cross-section area ratios as well as water profiles representing the area around the crack and their integrals do not show a preference for the high or low viscosity healing agent. Another observation is that in presence of two cracks, only one is properly healed, especially when using the latter healing agent. Exposure to water immediately after release of the healing agent stimulates the foaming reaction of the polyurethane and ensures a better crack closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Tomography Technique for Assessment of the Material Condition of Concrete Using Optimized Elastic Wave Parameters
Materials 2016, 9(4), 291; doi:10.3390/ma9040291
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (33296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete is the most ubiquitous construction material. Apart from the fresh and early age properties of concrete material, its condition during the structure life span affects the overall structural performance. Therefore, development of techniques such as non-destructive testing which enable the investigation of
[...] Read more.
Concrete is the most ubiquitous construction material. Apart from the fresh and early age properties of concrete material, its condition during the structure life span affects the overall structural performance. Therefore, development of techniques such as non-destructive testing which enable the investigation of the material condition, are in great demand. Tomography technique has become an increasingly popular non-destructive evaluation technique for civil engineers to assess the condition of concrete structures. In the present study, this technique is investigated by developing reconstruction procedures utilizing different parameters of elastic waves, namely the travel time, wave amplitude, wave frequency, and Q-value. In the development of algorithms, a ray tracing feature was adopted to take into account the actual non-linear propagation of elastic waves in concrete containing defects. Numerical simulation accompanied by experimental verifications of wave motion were conducted to obtain wave propagation profiles in concrete containing honeycomb as a defect and in assessing the tendon duct filling of pre-stressed concrete (PC) elements. The detection of defects by the developed tomography reconstruction procedures was evaluated and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessArticle Application of Image Analysis to Identify Quartz Grains in Heavy Aggregates Susceptible to ASR in Radiation Shielding Concrete
Materials 2016, 9(4), 224; doi:10.3390/ma9040224
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is considered as a potential aging-related degradation phenomenon that might impair the durability of concrete in nuclear containments. The objective of this paper is the application of digital analysis of microscopic images to identify the content and size of quartz
[...] Read more.
Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is considered as a potential aging-related degradation phenomenon that might impair the durability of concrete in nuclear containments. The objective of this paper is the application of digital analysis of microscopic images to identify the content and size of quartz grains in heavy mineral aggregates. The range of investigation covered magnetite and hematite aggregates, known as good absorbers of gamma radiation. Image acquisition was performed using thin sections observed in transmitted cross-polarized light with λ plate. Image processing, consisting of identification of ferrum oxide and epoxy resin, and the subsequent application of a set of filtering operations resulted in an adequate image reduction allowing the grain size analysis. Quartz grains were classified according to their mean diameter so as to identify the reactive range. Accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to evaluate the ASR potential of the aggregates. The SiO2 content in the heavyweight aggregates determined using the image analysis of thin sections was similar to XRF test result. The content of reactive quartz hematite was 2.7%, suggesting that it would be prone to ASR. The expansion test, according to ASTM C1260, confirmed the prediction obtained using the digital image analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Revealing the Dark Side of Portlandite Clusters in Cement Paste by Circular Polarization Microscopy
Materials 2016, 9(3), 176; doi:10.3390/ma9030176
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (27691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plane and crossed polarization are the two standard light modes in polarized light microscopy that are widely used to characterize crystalline and amorphous phases in cement-based materials. However, the use of the crossed polarized light mode has been found to be restrictive for
[...] Read more.
Plane and crossed polarization are the two standard light modes in polarized light microscopy that are widely used to characterize crystalline and amorphous phases in cement-based materials. However, the use of the crossed polarized light mode has been found to be restrictive for studying birefringent phases quantitatively due to the extinction phenomenon that arises depending on the crystal orientation. This paper introduces circular polarization microscopy as an alternative technique to overcome the extinction problem during the examination of cementitious materials’ microstructure with optical microscopy. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, selected optical and micromorphological features of portlandite clusters were investigated in cement paste. Image analysis results showed that compared to the conventional crossed polarization technique, circular polarization offers significant advantages when portlandite quantification is of interest, and it stands out as a promising low-cost alternative to backscattered electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessArticle Improved Sectional Image Analysis Technique for Evaluating Fiber Orientations in Fiber-Reinforced Cement-Based Materials
Materials 2016, 9(1), 42; doi:10.3390/ma9010042
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The distribution of fiber orientation is an important factor in determining the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete. This study proposes a new image analysis technique for improving the evaluation accuracy of fiber orientation distribution in the sectional image of fiber-reinforced concrete. A series
[...] Read more.
The distribution of fiber orientation is an important factor in determining the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete. This study proposes a new image analysis technique for improving the evaluation accuracy of fiber orientation distribution in the sectional image of fiber-reinforced concrete. A series of tests on the accuracy of fiber detection and the estimation performance of fiber orientation was performed on artificial fiber images to assess the validity of the proposed technique. The validation test results showed that the proposed technique estimates the distribution of fiber orientation more accurately than the direct measurement of fiber orientation by image analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption
Materials 2016, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/ma9010002
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 12 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (8468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its
[...] Read more.
In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Processing for Cement-based Materials)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography
Authours: Mladena Lukovic *, Guang Ye
Affiliation: Section of Materials and Environment, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Abstract:
In concrete repair systems, material properties in the repair material and interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its w/c ratio. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. Beside the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. Therefore, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 days), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Furthermore, voids in the interface are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate material. A similar phenomenon is known to occur in lightweight aggregate concrete, but was not previously reported in repair systems. Knowledge about moisture exchange effects can provide engineers with recommendations about substrate preconditioning in experiments and field practice.
Keywords: water movement; repair system; interface; X-ray micro-computed tomography

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Materials Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Materials Edit a special issue Review for Materials
logo
loading...
Back to Top