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Special Issue "Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carla Renata Arciola

1.Head of the Research Unit on Implant Infections, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2. Professor of General Pathology, Medical School, University of Bologna, Via S. Giacomo 14, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: anti-adhesive surfaces; Anti-biofilm agents; Anti-biofouling materials; Antibiotic-loaded biomaterials; Anti-infective materials; Anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes; Bioactive antibacterial coatings; Materials delivering antimicrobials; Covalent conjugation of antimicrobial peptides; (GTR/GBR) membrane with anti-infective properties; Implant infections; Multilayer antibacterial films; Periprosthetic infections; Photocatalytic coatings for hygienic surfaces; Technologies and nano-technologies for infection-resistant surfaces

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need for anti-infective materials involves a broad sphere of medical applications and health technologies, ranging from catheters and stents, implant materials and artificial organs, to sanitary equipment, fittings and textiles for hospitals, drinking water pipes, and even food packaging for ensuring the quality and safety of products. Many anti-infective materials, widespread in health care institutions, are doped with antimicrobial agents, therefore, the potential evolutionary and ecological effects of antimicrobial materials towards the selection of resistant clones can not be neglected. Moreover, bacteria can benefit from artificial materials in order to form macromolecular biofilms on their surfaces. With biofilms, bacteria cling to the material surfaces and wrap themselves up, thus escaping the biocide substances and, in vivo, the immune defenses. The focus of the forthcoming “Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology” Special Issue is to present an up-to-date and multidisciplinary overview of the new strategies for anti-infective materials. An interesting approach consists in modifying the surface of materials, which already possess the required bulk properties, making them bactericidal or refractory to bacterial colonization and to biofilm formation. Intrinsically bioactive materials, self-sterilizing materials, and materials doped with antibacterial substances are progressively developed and optimized. For medical implants, the anti-infective materials should be designed to be able to oppose bacterial colonization and, at the same time, to support tissue repair. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are opening new horizons.

Prof. Dr. Carla Renata Arciola
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ÿ   Anti-adhesive surfaces
  • Ÿ   Anti-biofouling/Anti-biofilm surfaces
  • Ÿ   Anti-infective textiles
  • Ÿ   Antimicrobial-delivering materials
  • Ÿ   Food packaging
  • Ÿ   Hygienic surfaces
  • Ÿ   Implant infection and immune defences
  • Ÿ   Medical devices and prostheses
  • Ÿ   Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials
  • Ÿ   Self-sterilizing materials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Infection and Implant Loosening in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Evaluation of 209 Cases
Materials 2016, 9(11), 871; doi:10.3390/ma9110871
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteria species detected in a large number of patients treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee at a single specialized center. Furthermore, the rate of implant loosening was investigated in a time-dependent
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteria species detected in a large number of patients treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee at a single specialized center. Furthermore, the rate of implant loosening was investigated in a time-dependent manner for the most frequently detected bacteria species. A retrospective analysis of patients (n = 209) treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee was performed. The following parameters were evaluated: C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration, microbiological evaluation of tissue samples, loosening of the implant, the time that had elapsed since the primary prosthetic joint replacement, and the duration since the last surgical intervention. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were most frequently detected, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Differences in CRP concentration were detected among various bacteria species. Osteolysis was not associated with one causative agent in particular. Patients who had undergone previous revision surgery had a higher probability of implant loosening. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. are the most common causative agents of prosthetic joint infection and show no significant differences with regard to implant loosening or the time-course when compared to S. aureus. Infections with Enterococcus spp. seem to develop faster than with other bacteria species. The risk of implant loosening increases with revision surgery, in particular in the hip joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
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Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae), a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador
Materials 2016, 9(6), 454; doi:10.3390/ma9060454
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae) is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass
[...] Read more.
Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae) is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and UV detection. The presence of antimicrobial components prompted us to test the extract against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant and susceptible Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The chromatographic analysis led to the identification of 38 compounds, including polyphenols and organic acids, and represents the first chemical characterization of this plant. The extract showed modest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli which was found to be less sensitive. Whilst methicillin-resistant strains usually display resistance to several drugs, no relevant differences were observed between methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains. Considering its long-standing use in folk medicine, which suggests the relative safety of the plant, and the presence of many known antibacterial polyphenolic compounds responsible for its antibacterial activity, the results show that M. hallii extract could be used as a potential new antiseptic agent. Moreover, new anti-infective biomaterials and nanomaterials could be designed through the incorporation of M. hallii polyphenols. This prospective biomedical application is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials
Materials 2016, 9(5), 316; doi:10.3390/ma9050316
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral
[...] Read more.
Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections) and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy), obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Developed Using Porcine Articular Cartilage and In Vitro Feasibility Study of Porcine Articular Cartilage as an Anti-Adhesive Film
Materials 2016, 9(1), 49; doi:10.3390/ma9010049
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
PDF Full-text (4332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we examined whether porcine articular cartilage (PAC) is a suitable and effective anti-adhesive material. PAC, which contained no non-collagenous tissue components, was collected by mechanical manipulation and decellularization of porcine knee cartilage. The PAC film for use as an anti-adhesive
[...] Read more.
In this study, we examined whether porcine articular cartilage (PAC) is a suitable and effective anti-adhesive material. PAC, which contained no non-collagenous tissue components, was collected by mechanical manipulation and decellularization of porcine knee cartilage. The PAC film for use as an anti-adhesive barrier was easily shaped into various sizes using homemade silicone molds. The PAC film was cross-linked to study the usefulness of the anti-adhesive barrier shape. The cross-linked PAC (Cx-PAC) film showed more stable physical properties over extended periods compared to uncross-linked PAC (UnCx-PAC) film. To control the mechanical properties, Cx-PAC film was thermally treated at 45 °C or 65 °C followed by incubation at room temperature. The Cx-PAC films exhibited varying enthalpies, ultimate tensile strength values, and contact angles before and after thermal treatment and after incubation at room temperature. Next, to examine the anti-adhesive properties, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on Cx-PAC and thermal-treated Cx-PAC films. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence, and MTT assays showed that HUVECs were well adhered to the surface of the plate and proliferated, indicating no inhibition of the attachment and proliferation of HUVECs. In contrast, Cx-PAC and thermal-treated Cx-PAC exhibited little and/or no cell attachment and proliferation because of the inhibition effect on HUVECs. In conclusion, we successfully developed a Cx-PAC film with controllable mechanical properties that can be used as an anti-adhesive barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antimicrobial Properties and Cytocompatibility of PLGA/Ag Nanocomposites
Materials 2016, 9(1), 37; doi:10.3390/ma9010037
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 20 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 11 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of multifunctional nanocomposites based on poly(dl-Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) and increasing concentration of silver (Ag) nanoparticles and their effects on cell viability for biomedical applications. PLGA nanocomposite films, produced by solvent casting
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of multifunctional nanocomposites based on poly(dl-Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) and increasing concentration of silver (Ag) nanoparticles and their effects on cell viability for biomedical applications. PLGA nanocomposite films, produced by solvent casting with 1 wt%, 3 wt% and 7 wt% of Ag nanoparticles were investigated and surface properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Antibacterial tests were performed using an Escherichia coli RB and Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 strains. The cell viability and morphology were performed with a murine fibroblast cell line (L929) and a human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS-2) by cell viability assay and electron microscopy observations. Matrix protein secretion and deposition were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results suggest that the PLGA film morphology can be modified introducing a small percentage of silver nanoparticles, which induce the onset of porous round-like microstructures and also affect the wettability. The PLGA/Ag films having silver nanoparticles of more than 3 wt% showed antibacterial effects against E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, silver-containing PLGA films displayed also a good cytocompatibility when assayed with L929 and SAOS-2 cells; indicating the PLGA/3Ag nanocomposite film as a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Innate Immune Response in Implant-Associated Infections: Neutrophils against Biofilms
Materials 2016, 9(5), 387; doi:10.3390/ma9050387
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
PDF Full-text (1715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilm has been recognized as a well-protected form of living for bacteria, contributing to bacterial pathogenicity, particularly for opportunistic species. Biofilm-associated infections are marked by their persistence. Extensive research has been devoted to the formation and composition of biofilms. The immune response against
[...] Read more.
Biofilm has been recognized as a well-protected form of living for bacteria, contributing to bacterial pathogenicity, particularly for opportunistic species. Biofilm-associated infections are marked by their persistence. Extensive research has been devoted to the formation and composition of biofilms. The immune response against biofilms remains rather unexplored, but there is the notion that bacteria within a biofilm are protected from host defences. Here we glance at the mechanisms by which neutrophils recognize and face biofilms in implant infections and discuss the implications of this interplay, as well as speculate on its significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)

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